Saturday, August 31, 2019
The Cebu City Schools Division of the Department of Education (DepEd) is reminding public school canteens about the policy prohibiting the selling of junk food and softdrinks. According to the Education Program Supervisor Delia Kiamco, they are regularly monitoring public school canteens to ensure that they only sell nutritious food. Business and sanitary permits and other licenses are annually checked by DepEd to assure that the food sold in the canteen are clean and safe. Kiamco said that those who are managing canteens should always bear in mind that service and not profit is the main consideration in operating a school canteen. As provided for under DepEd Order 17, only nutrient-rich and fortified food shall be made available in school canteens. Processed fortified food should bear the Ã¢â¬ËSangkap PinoyÃ¢â¬â¢ seal. Among beverages, only milk, vegetable and fruit shakes and juices are allowed. Kiamco said that in order to curb the malnutrition problem among school children, selling of soft drinks and other carbonated drinks, sugar-based synthetic or artificially flavored juices and junk food are prohibited since these are detrimental to childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s health. DepEd also prohibits the use of mono sodium glutamate or vetsin in food. Only iodized salt should be used to help eliminate the iodine deficiency disorder among school children. School canteen operators are required to post their menu indicating nutritional value on a bulletin board within the school canteen premises. Label dilemma However, Kiamco said that because almost all junk food brands in the market have the Ã¢â¬Å"Sangkap PinoyÃ¢â¬ and Fortified seal some canteens justify their sale. Ã¢â¬Å"Sometimes, canteen operators are after money making. We are strongly implementing the food service teachers from selling softdrinks and junk food,Ã¢â¬ Kiamco said. Kiamco said that they will hold another meeting to decide what action to take on food products with Sangkap Pinoy and Fortified labels. She is asking the public to report to DepEd if there are any public school canteens that still sell prohibited food and drinks. DedEd is also having problems with those selling junk food outside school campuses. Ã¢â¬Å"We cannot do anything against these vendors outside the schools except to remind students not to patronize them,Ã¢â¬ said Kiamco. /Christine Emily L. Pantaleon, Correspondent
Friday, August 30, 2019
The reason is because it is a portrait of a person it cannot have parts hat correspondent to one another; they are not equal. When I mean not equal, I mean if you fold the painting in half the painting is not alike both sides are different. The portrait has symbolic meaning behind it because he was our first president and in the portrait he is surrounded with objects of his public life during the service of his country. Now analyzing the painting more thoroughly, one can notice his clothing attire was suitable for his position in power, since he was the president of the United States of America.The suit symbolizes a switch toa public fgure from general to president. The sheathed sword is ceremonial; it distinguished him as a Ã¢â¬Å"fine gentlemenÃ¢â¬ and is symbolic in a sense because it distinguished him as being head of state. i The subject matter of this portrait is George Washington, who is posing as the first president. The reason I was drawn to him is because he is our first President and I wanted to do a piece on a famous person that everyone in the United States knows.I believe that the artwork is placed perfectly; after all, it is in the American wing of the useum alongside other political paintings. This is the first painting of George Washington however; the original Lansdowne is not in the museum. The original one was done in 1796. The name of the portrait comes from William Petty, the first Maqguis of Lansdowne who was a British supporter of American independence. Gilbert Stuart painted numerous copies of this famous piece, one of which was made for Ms. William Bingham of Pennsylvania and another is the one displayed at the Metropolitan Museum of Art. The portrait shows the movement of the ratification of he Jay Treaty and the transatlantic political alliance brought together during George Washington's second term. Ã¢â¬Ë Similar material painted around this time in 1817 was John Trumbull's oil canvas Ã¢â¬Å"Declaration of Independence,Ã¢â¬ located in the United States Capitol Rotunda. ii Gilbert Stuart was a renowned artist who was known for capturing the inner character, which he believed was reflected in their physical features. He believed Washington features indicated a man with great passion. Ã¢â¬Ë The George Washington portrait brought Gilbert Stuart fame.This period in time a person like George Washington would give the artist more sitters. iii In addition, reproducing this portrait gave Stuart more money, either painting it wit n his own two hands or having engravers paint it, which he held the copyright to as well. This portrait is a key turning point for Gilbert Stuart that made him a successful artist. Ã¢â¬Å"He is surrounded with allegorical emblems of his public life in the service of his country, which are highly illustrative of the great and tremendous storms which have requently prevailed. v These storms have abated, and the appearance of the rainbow is introduced in the background as a sign. Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ Advertisement for the first exhibition of the Lansdowne portrait in 1798 Ã¢â¬Å"Lansdowne Portrait retains a place of special significance within the history of American art. Ã¢â¬Å"- Dr. Bryan Zygmont. v As you can see from the historians/critics they concur that the artwork is a famous portrait in history. The artwork is a contention of being the best artwork in American History.
Thursday, August 29, 2019
Hostage Taking and Live Television Coverage - Essay Example Actions for a scene Commander According to Thompson (2006), the scene commander is charged with the overall operations devised to rescue victims who have been held hostage by criminals. One of the key roles of the scene commander is to secure the perimeter of the hostage scene as well as minimize any potential deaths or injuries. Though constitutionally the media enjoys the right to cover any public event including hostage taking incidents, the scene commander can either issue access to the crime scene or prohibit the media from accessing the crime scene depending on the nature of the crime taking place (Hammer, 2007). According to the Centre of Excellence Defense against Terrorism (2007), the scene commander should define or regulate the distance that the media team is allowed within the vicinity of the crime or hotspot. Additionally, the scene commander should regulate the press statements being broadcast by the media houses and the actual filming of the event on live broadcast thi s is to ensure that media coverage do not jeopardize the efforts of the law enforcement officers. Lastly, the scene commander is also required to control the interaction between the media and the criminals at the scene. According to Fourie (2001), the main objective for the scene commander is to devise possible measures to facilitate the safe rescuing of the victims using the efforts of the rescue teams as well as the tactical team. However, Noesner (2010) suggests that there is a need for the senior commander to monitor the media personnel to avoid commotions such as extreme approach to the area of crime that may agitate or raise suspicion among the robbers, which could result to endangering the lives of the hostages. Furthermore, all media statements should pass through the scene commander for moderation and filtering of any information that may leak relevant intelligence to the robbers concerning the ongoing rescue operation. Live media coverage of hostage taking incident Hammer (2007) observed that live television coverage of a hostage scene is essential in planning rescue mission but also presents an equal amount of risks to the law enforcers. The media constitutionally enjoys press freedom, which dictates that it is free from any force of manipulation in order to broadcast autonomously and therefore, this privilege prohibits even the law enforcement agency from forcefully terminating the live television coverage. In addition, shutting off the live television coverage may raise suspicion among the robbers and jeopardise any form of rapport that may have been already developed by the negotiation team. In his book, McKenna (2000) alternatively stated that there exist other means of regulating the entire live media coverage. McKenna (2000) pointed out that the scene commander might seek consensus with the media houses to delay the live coverage of the scene from five to ten minutes rather than asking them to stop broadcasting; this will offer the scene comma nder an opportunity to edit or regulate the content that will be aired on live television.
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Of the Waiting for Superman - Movie Review Example The film was an exhaustive documentary about how AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s public school has degraded which in part can be attributed to policy makerÃ¢â¬â¢s neglect and the teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s recalcitrant stance against any progressive suggestion that could improve AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s public school system as it now lags behind in terms of STEM performance (Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics) among developed countries. This sorry state of AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s educational system is narrated against the backdrop of AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s policy of No Child Left Behind which was supposed to provide quality education and opportunity to every child in America. To highlight the disconnect between policy and actual sorry state reality of AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s educational system, the story followed the story of five children as they attempt to get a decent education from good schools Ã¢â¬â which are the charter and magnet schools. These charter schools provide quality education with the right assistance for the learner only that it is not provided to every child in America. In fact, it has to be won through a lottery which in effect, the film depicted that the childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s future in America, especially those who are underprivilidged, rest not on the putative policy of No Child Left Behind but rather on chance depending on the bingo callerÃ¢â¬â¢s reel or randomized computer program which made the whole situation not only disgusting but sad. (Prisco). This is the situation where Geoffrey Canada and Michele A. Rhee came where they have to put up against reactionary system and hostile union to do what is right for AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s public school system, at least in their respective jurisdictions, to improve them. Mr. Canada was an untiring educational reformer who was not discouraged by the surrounding of Harlem to put up a school that provides quality education and sends students into college. It was difficult but through persistence and standing against all odds, Mr. Canada was able to overcome funding difficulties to make the Harlen ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Zone school operational. Ms. Rhee equally did a daunting task being the Chancellor of Washington D.C. public school system where she vehemently challenged the current status quo of AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s educational system. Doing the right thing with her job meant making unpopular decisions and standing up against the deeply entrenched teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s union. In carrying out these tough decision, she has to make a very unpopular decision of closing ineffective schools who are described in the film as Ã¢â¬Å"academic sinkholesÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"drop out factoriesÃ¢â¬ (Waiting for Superman). This was to give way to performing schools to have more resources and provide quality education for children. She also has to stand up against the union who would vilify her because the teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s union exalt teachers no matter how ineffectual nor incompetent they are to be heroes and therefore they should not be fired even if they underperform. Ms. Rhee was just a single person but she had to put against an organized union that made up virtually impossible to fire a teacher who had gained tenure after two years of teaching. This system of making it impossible to fire incompetent teachers after gaining tenure is one of the reasons why AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s public school system is deteriorating. If the education system has to improve, this meant standing up against them. They are so protective of their tenure even if it contributed to the deterioration of the public school system that when a proposal was offerred to exchange tenure for merit that would enable teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s higher pay, the Washington TeachersÃ¢â¬â¢
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Critically discuss the view that anti-globalisation arguments seriously undervalue the benefits that globalisation has delivered for all countries 02084 - Essay Example The concepts of globalization is supported by the long established concept of capitalization and on contrary to that the anti globalization movement is deeply against the existence and establishment of capitalization in the world irrespective of any of itÃ¢â¬â¢s from. At present, the escalating development and progress in international business, the trend of globalization at economical level is almost irreversible. This era is known as the era of global integration of economies which is growing quite swiftly. Where there are some benefits related with the advent of globalization, there are certain disadvantages which are prevailing in the world, redefining the social and cultural aspects of the world. Against which, there is a movement which support and advocates the concept of anti globalization (Petras, & Veltmeyer, 2001). The anti globalization is referred to as a disputed term which is related with the network of international social movement that has gained the attention of media after the protests against WTO (World Trade Organization) in Seatle. According to Britannica the term is neither completely reactive nor defensive. It is instead a proactive movement that advocates the global democracy and global justice. The main gist of anti globalization movement is to promote the democratic globalization or alternative globalization (Engler, 2007; Fuchs, n.d.). As the name suggests the movement opposed the globalization as well as the capitalism. The philosophy behind the anti globalization believes that the organizations and the individuals can attain the personal, social and economic objectives without creating adverse consequences for the society that are linked with capitalism (Tomlinson, 1999). The movement for anti globalization aim towards the efficiency of the economy and the decency of individuals being human in opposition to the prevailing corporate competition and
Monday, August 26, 2019
A Case Study of Two Entrepreneurs - Essay Example He is not only a hard worker but he finds the application of creativity to pure business solutions very invigorating. Because of his dedication to the industry he was awarded an OBE for services to the retail industry. He is keener in using skill and craft to come up with exclusive products and prefers to make simple dresses. He likes to work in a team. ConranÃ¢â¬â¢s designs are inspired by early garments of Coco Chanel and he is known for the elegant versions of the British tweed suits (Answers Corporation, 2010). He did not change his main collections every season and hence his garments were considered a long-term investment. He was a talented person but did not get the opportunity to expand to his fullest potential. Under a ten-year licensing agreement with the Marchpole Group Plc, Conran would be able to penetrate the European market with his menswear collection and expand the range to include accessories. However Conran did manage to position himself solidly in the British fashion scenario with clientele such as Diana, the late Princess of Wales. The motivation was from his father who too was a designer Ã¢â¬â Sir Terence Conran, known as the design guru (Donald, 2010). One of the top fashion designers, Conran has had a prosperous profession for the past twenty years (Mahalo, 2010). He was amongst the first designers to show at London Fashion Week. Over the years he entered into furniture, luggage, childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s wear, fragrances and fine bone china. Overall his collections personify sophisticated, authoritative lines. He started his career as a design consultant but within a year launched his own collections. He is the recipient of several awards in the fashion world. He has 45 different lines sold in 68 different countries (Roberts, 2009). Although he has it in his genes to be a designer like his father, but Conran did not find it easy to be the child of a living god who has to carve a place for himself in life. Conran has also entered
Sunday, August 25, 2019
Similarities and differences between the USA and Saudi Arabia in relation to their religion, politics, economic development, and social behaviors - Essay Example The paper tells that in Saudi Arabia, peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s way of life, the economy and politics are guided by the Islamic religion and their old customs. In contrast, the American society is guided by freedom and economic development. United States methods, therefore, differ from the Saudi peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s method. United States is the most religious developed country across the world. It is revealed that religion plays a great role in the life of American people. The history of United States is patent by freedom of religion. Constitution of this country is designed to ensure citizens have the power to establish religious practices. This, therefore, makes United States one of the countries with diverse religion. This is because it is estimated that there are over 100 different religious sects in the America. About 80 percent of them are Christians, while Jews and Muslims hold about 2 percent each. Majority of Americans are, therefore, followers of Christ. On the contrary, Saudi Arabia has Islamic as its official religion. As Muslims, Saudi Arabian people believe in God and prophets. However, they do not believe Jesus Christ was a son of God but rather a messenger. In addition, they believe Muhammad was also a messenger of God. The kingdom of Saudi Arabia is, therefore, referred as an Islamic theocratic dominion. The law in this country only allows Muslims to be the real citizens of this kingdom. However, non-Muslims are only allowed to visit and work in the kingdom but cannot acquire citizenship. Moreover, Muslims are the only ones permitted to visit holiest cities in the country. One of the holiest cities is Mecca, which houses Ka Ã¢â¬Ëaba, a pilgrim shrine that was built by Moses following an order from God. United States government and politics is a clear example of democracy. This is because they are allowed to choose their representatives in their relevant States during elections. States representatives then select the best candidate to contend for the preside ncy. United StatesÃ¢â¬â¢ citizen vote for their president through the electoral process called Electoral College system. In this case, every State has electors equal to the number of members in the House of Representatives. Additionally, two senators representing each State are also included in the Electoral College system. During the elections, United StatesÃ¢â¬â¢ citizens cast votes to electors who obligate to offer support presidential candidate desired by members of their State. Whenever a president is elected, he or she is supposed to run the office for a period less than two terms comprising four years each. President in United States is the head of government and State. In addition, he is the commander in chief of all the armed forces. The structure of government in United States is categorized in three levels, which include Local, State, and Federal governments. Federal government in United States is in charge of the entire nation and has three branches, which include th e legislative, executive and legislature. In addition, the government of United States conducts its affairs in accordance to the constitution of the country. This constitution outlines freedom of citizens, function of the three arms of government and democratic rule. On the contrary, Saudi Arabian government is monarch in nature with the head of state being referred as the king. Whenever the king demises, he is succeeded by his eldest son in the event. However, the king can also choose a heir to succeed him or her in the leadership of the country.
Saturday, August 24, 2019
GOAL SETTING AND MCCLELLAND'S THEORY - Essay Example Goal setting can be a powerful method for motivating members in an organization under right conditions. Researchers have shown that the best performance that an organization can ever have is when goals are specific and challenging, and when they are used in performance evaluation. Additionally, goals can be linked to feedback on results an aspect that help to create commitment and acceptance at the workplace It is very important for managers to focus on satisfying employee needs since; this is significantly associated with academic achievement, criminal convictions, drug abuse, marital satisfaction, and performance at the work place. Managers are advised to motivate their employees by formulating programs that target at meeting emerging needs among workers. Researchers have proved that individuals provided with specific goals which are difficult but attainable mostly perform better than those allocated easy, nonspecific, or no goals at all. The need for power in an individual reflects their desire to influence, coach, teach, or encourage others to achieve. This kind of people with a high need for power, tend to work very hard and uphold high standards of discipline and self-respect. This need has both its advantages or the positive side and the negative side which can be referred as the shortcomings. The negative entails the Ã¢â¬Å"if I win, you loseÃ¢â¬ mentality which is a bad mentality among human beings in a community (Kreitner & Kanicki, 2012). On the other hand, people with a positive mentality on power usually concentrate on achieving group goals and helping other employees in an organization. Therefore, McClelland in his theory proposes that top managers in an organization should possess a high need for power coupled with a low need for affiliation. The theory indicates that people with a high need for achievement tend to
Friday, August 23, 2019
ODD and CD Risk Factors - Term Paper Example The symptoms are: arguing with adults, loss of temper, refuse to obey rules, vindictive, low self-esteem, hold others responsible for their mistakes, angry and annoys people deliberately. Risk Factors Male children and teenagers are more prone to acquiring the disorder than their female counterparts. These children mostly are raised by parents who have a substance abuse problem, moody or with attention deficit. Marital conflicts coupled with child abuse are other factors that increase chances of acquiring ODD. Low socioeconomic status is also noted to contribute and lastly the presence of an inconsistent parental attention. Many researchers maintain that ODD is a benign disorder. Children suffering from ODD are associated with low intelligence and hence are poor academic performers. However, this does not mean that highly intelligent children do not exhibit conduct problems. Due to the hostility aspect exhibited by ODD children they likely end up with poor social lives. Their delinqu ent nature lands them usually in trouble with authorities. In respect to neurochemicals and their relationship with ODD development, studies have shown that low levels of salivary cortisol have a huge correlation with ODD. There is also evidence of genetic attributes liable for ODD. This is where family negativity links up well with antisocial behaviours mostly at the adolescent stage. In order to identify the progressive nature of the disorder in a child one is required to examine them through discussions, talk to their parent(s) and research on their medical past records. Other tests are also necessary so as to determine that it is actually ODD and not any other disorder or problem. This is necessitated by the fact that ODD manifests itself among other neuropsychiatric disorders (Boden, Fergusson & Horwood, 2010). This is in other words termed as comorbidity and examples are ODD coupled with depression and ODD and ADHD. Case disorder Douglas is now 18 years old and is in high scho ol. He is fully rehabilitated from drugs and is seemingly quite happy with the way life is going. However, life as it is has turned for the better for a boy whose life remained a nightmare for him and those around him since he was 12 years old. At this age he started being hot tempered especially when he was denied to go for dances by his parents. He was suspended at the 8th grade after fighting with other children. After returning to school he took up a lifestyle of bullying others and later swore at a judge. He was taken to a Youth Centre for 3 months where he assaulted a guard and got an extension to 7 months. After returning home he decided that was it and unsuccessfully attempted to hang himself. It was later found that apart from having ODD he was also a deeply depressed teenager. Conduct Disorder This is regarded by many researchers as a higher version of Oppositional Defiant Disorder. The one suffering from this disorder hugely curtails the right of others in a social settin g. They tend to be quite aggressive to people and animals. They bully and intimidate them, physically harm others, force others into sexual acts and engage in stealing mostly by confronting their victims. They destroy property deliberately e.g. by setting it on fire and other such destructive measures. They are deceitful and act as thieves by breaking into houses. They often lie to get what they want and involve themselves in petty thefts (Harley, Murtagh and Cannon, 2008). They seriously violate rules
Geochemistry of natural waters - Term Paper Example However there a lot of evidence of human influence that either positively or negatively affect the whole cycle. Therefore in studying geochemistry of natural waters we will try to explain how the water cycle, the soil organic matters its importance, the behavior of some soil components and their interactions (Benites, 2005). The geological process involves a series of actions where hot molten material coming to the earthÃ¢â¬â¢s surface from the interior forms igneous rocks which are then broken down by weathering to create soil and the sedimentary rocks. The geologic cycle is a collective term used to describe complex interactions between component sub-cycles of the tectonic, hydrologic and biological cycling of elements. These sub-cycles will influence each other and in the end result to natural hazards and other processes which may be important to the environmental geology e. g ground water flow. Soil Chemistry and soil fertility Soil Chemistry Soil being the top layer of the ear thÃ¢â¬â¢s crust supports the growth of some organic matter and is made up of components such as pH, nutrient level plus the organic content which in the end determines the type of the soil (Regina, 2006). However the factors listed above will either vary depending on the type of crop which grows in that soil type and within a given geographic location. These factors will result to different soil quality types and the soil quality can be best determined by conducting soil test. Soil can be modified to suit other purposes such as farming. This can be done in several ways such as liming. This is the use of lime powder that will be spread on the soil to alter the pH of the soil. This is made possible because of the presence of Calcitic limestone (CaCo3) (Tan, 2011). This is usually a good source of Calcium and neutralizes the soil acidity. For plants survival there are nutrients to facilitate the growth the three most important being Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen which can be obtained i n large quantities from the atmosphere and water surrounding the plant that is ground water. Therefore the ground water plays a big role in the whole cycle. Soil chemistry began with early observations by experimenters. The first study was by J. Thomas. With time came to prove that, it is indeed true that soils can retain cations in exchange for equal amount of Calcium (Ca2+) ions (Tan, 2011). Soil Fertility With the term soil fertility we refer to that situation where a given type of soil is very rich in nutrients such as potassium nitrogen and phosphorous which are requirements for plant nutrition. With it also would be sufficient minerals and soil organic matter (Cuevas, 1994). The mineral traces are majorly for plant nutrition while the organic matter helps to improve the soil structure and enable the soil retain more moisture. Fertile soils have a good soil structure, facilitating proper drainage. However some soils are known to be wetter and retain more water content than othe rs. Soil formation in itself is a very long process and can take up to 100-10000 years for a single inch to be formed. This can be attributed to several factors such as climate, topography living organisms and most important is the parent material. The parent material result from the breakdown of rocks or from the deposits by
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Geographic Information System Essay A Geographic Information system or a GIS is a tool to capture, store and managing data which are spatially related to Earth. In close terms, the system is related to managing, integrating, storing and analyzing geographically referenced information. Geographic Information system is used in the process of scientific research, natural resource management, impact of pollution on environment, land use and planning, company sales and marketing and criminology. For example, Geographic Information system is often used energy planners who need to calculate the emergency response times during an emergency like a natural disaster. Also, Geographic Information system is used to find the areas that are affected by pollution Ã¢â¬â wet lands or used by companies to take advantage of an untapped economy or an unreserved market. HISTORY OF GIS The first use of a Geographic Information system is that recorded in 1854, by Sir John Snow. In the event of Cholera outbreak in London, he used a map which directed signs towards the individual cases of cholera in the city. This study which helped the administration to reach to the source of the outbreak, which was an infected water pump. After knowing the root cause of the outbreak, immediate steps were taken by the administration. This strategy of John Snow to collect all the information about the cholera cases in the city on a geographical map of the city and then to analyze the information at hand, thereby reaching at some conclusions that were helpful in fighting with the outbreak is the true essence of a Geographic Information system. Fig 1: Map showing clusters of Cholera cases in London by John Snow In the year 1962, the true face of Geographic Information system came into existence with the Federal Department of Rural development in Canada. The first Geographic Information system was developed by Dr. Roger Tomlinson, and was to help the Land inventory department to gather and analyze information related to the land use and capability, soil structure and forest area in Ontario. This system possessed some enhanced features like Ã¢â¬â mapping, overlaying, measurement, scaling and scanning. It also had a co-ordinate system that could inter relate every other part of the continent and could scale huge areas into very small ones. The use of overlays in extending the method of spatial analysis of geographical data was also included in this first Geographic Information system. However, this Geographic Information system was never brought out into the market for commercialization purposes. The first commercial Geographic Information system was developed during the late 1980Ã¢â¬â¢s by the MS Computing research Institute and this commercial Geographic Information system had a successful combination of the first Geographic Information system developed in 1962 by Sir John Snow. It had the technique of spatial attribution, and organizing of data with the help of database structures. With the onset of the 20th century, there was a fast growth in the development of commercial Geographic Information systems to transport, gather and analyze data in all commercial fields. Recently, there has been an increase in the number of free open source commercial Geographic Information systems which can be used in accordance with a number of operating systems and can also be customized top match up some specific tasks. DATA CREATION IN GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM The Geographic Information Systems that exist today make use of the information that is present in the digital form. The methods of data creation for a Geographic Information system are many and the most commonly accepted method for data creation of digital data is digitization. In this method, Computer aided design method is used to transfer the data present on a hard copy, into a digital form, and geo-referencing capabilities. Another popular form of extracting geographical data into digital form is by ortho-rectified imagery, in which head up digitizing is the main way through which tracing of geographical data is done directly rather than traditionally tracing the geographical data on a different digitizing tablet. LINKING INFORMATION FROM VARIOUS ORIGINS With the help of Geographic Information Systems, a myriad of information gathering is possible. Suppose for example, if the rainfall data about a particular state and its aerial snaps or the area are gathered, then it relatively easier to predict the area which dries up during summer. A Geographic Information Systems can make use of various forms of information by linking them together and analyzing the whole bunch together. The elementary requirement for knowing the exact source of data is the knowledge of variables. The location of a certain area is denoted by x,y,z coordinates, where x corresponds to Longitude, y corresponds to latitude and z corresponds to elevation. These values may vary according to the needs and types of data required. A Geographic Information System is capable of changing any form of digital data into usable form that is recognized by the system and is used. For instance, the satellite images that are generated with the help of remote sensing satellites are processed by a Geographic Information System to corresponding map like information which can be easily read by the Geographic Information System. Similarly, the hydrologic tabular data in the tabular form can be converted into a data map, which is used as layers of information in a Geographic Information System. DATA REPRESENTATION The Geographic Information System offers the presentation of real time objects like land, roads, height etc, in the digital form. However, the real time data is further divided into two types: discrete and continuous data. Discrete data includes data like a building, area of land, while continuous data represents level of rain, height of a particular area, or elevation. There are two main methods of storing data in a Geographic Information System for both discrete and continuous forms. 1. Raster method Ã¢â¬â this form of data is stored in the form of cell rows and cell columns, where a single value data is stored in each cell. Since raster is used to store a single data, in each cell, continuous forms of data an extended table of more than one row or column is used. 2. Vector Method Ã¢â¬â in a Geographic Information System, it is often needed to express data in the form of vectors. In order to store data which possesses some sort of direction, use of polygons is made in the Geographic Information Systems. These polygons or geometrical shapes are also called as Shape files. Zero dimensional points, one dimensional lines, two dimensional polygons are some examples of shape files used in Geographic Information Systems. Points are used to denote real time objects like location of a school, building, home, well etc. lines are used to denote roads, railway lines, rivers etc. polygons are used to point to an area of land, city boundaries, water bodies etc. Each of these geometric shapes / geometries are associated with single rows in the database of the Geographic Information System, and this describes their characteristics completely. For example, consider a Geographic Information System data base that gives information about the various lakes in a particular area, their depth, and quality of water, color of water and the level of pollutants that are mixed with water. These sets of information can be each used separately to make a map to describe that particular data set. Also, the Geographic Information Systems can be used to identify and locate the wells that are present in the area, in particular that are within the one mile area of the lake. The wells are identified as point geometry and the lakes as polygon geometry in the Geographic Information System data map sets. Vector characteristics in a Geographic Information System data set can also be altered to maintain the spatial characteristic or integrity of a particular data / location, with the application of certain topology rules. A simple basic rule used in Geographic Information Systems is that the polygons must never overlap each other. The vector data sets can be appropriately used to represent the continuous data sets or continuously varying information. The contour lines and triangulated discontinuous areas and networks are used to characterize the elevation / height above sea level and other examples of continuous values. The triangulated discontinuous areas record the values of a point location which are in the form of a mesh formed with the help of lines connected from each other signifying other areas and point locations. For example, the face of a mesh in the form of a triangle is used to represent the terrain surface in Geographic Information Systems.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Emotion Recognition System for Affective Text K.Thendral, Dr.S.Chitrakala, S.P.Surendernath ABSTRACT: Mining social emotions deals with a new aspect for categorizing the document based on the emotions such as happy, sad, sympathy, etc., theyhelp online users to select related documents based on their emotional preferences. Aiming to find the connections between social emotions and affect terms and thus predict the social feeling from text content mechanically. Joint emotion-topic model by augmenting Latent Dirichlet Allocation with an additional layer for emotion modelling initially generates a group of latent topics from emotions, followed by generating affect terms from every topic. The techniques involved in this are emotion term model, topic model and emotion topic model. The emotion-topic model utilizes the complementary advantages of both emotion term model and topic model,and is not only effective in extracting the meaningful latent topics, but also improves the performance of social emotion prediction. Keywords Ã¢â¬â Affective Text,Emotion-topic model, Latent Dirichilet Allocation. 1. INTRODUCTION: An emotion is a Meta communicative pictorial representation of a facial expression which in the absence of body language and probably draw to serve a receiverÃ¢â¬â¢s attention to the tenor or temper of a senderÃ¢â¬â¢s nominal verbal communication, changing and improving its interpretation. It expresses-usually by means of punctuation marks Ã¢â¬â a personÃ¢â¬â¢s feelings or mood and can include numbers and letters. The interrelation of text and emotions has been a captivating topic for centuries. What makes people feel what they read? How is the writerÃ¢â¬â¢s emotion conveyed in a text? How can we write to communicate an emotional message more clearly? A number of researchers have attempted to obtain answers to these questions for a long time and there is an enormous amount of literature on techniques and devices for emotion detection. (Bloom, Garg, Argamon, 2007;) Two attempts to measure emotions are based on two different models: dimensional and categorical. In the categorical model emotions are labelled, say that a person is Ã¢â¬Å"happyÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"sadÃ¢â¬ and people get a sense of what others mean. In the dimensional model the representation is using multidimensional scaling (e.g. Ã¢â¬Å"pleasant-unpleasantÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"excitementÃ¢â¬ , and Ã¢â¬Å"yielding-resistingÃ¢â¬ ). In the affective computing domain, supervised learning techniques are preferred due to strong performance. However, a challenge to using supervised techniques is the need for corpora with text that has been annotated with emotion labels. These are time consuming and expensive to produce. Unsupervised techniques do not have these requirements but are often less precise. 2. RELATED WORK Many methods have been proposed to mine emotions from the text and social networks. Affective text mining deals with mining emotions from affective words. SemEval introduced a task named Ã¢â¬Å"affective textÃ¢â¬ in 2007 , aiming to annotate short headline texts with a predefined list of emotions and/or polarity orientation (positive/negative).There is a large body of previous work on mining affective content from text documents, product reputation mining , customer opinionextraction/summarization, , and sentiment classification . However, none of these studies explores the connection between social emotions and affective terms. An online system Mood Views has also been developed for tracking and searching emotion annotated blog posts , , , . The posts are published with an indicator of the Ã¢â¬Å"current moodÃ¢â¬ of the blogger, at the time of posting the blog. Mood-Views is a platform for collecting, analyzing, and displaying aggregate moods in the blog space. Launched in mid-2005, Mood Views continuously collects these emotion indications, as well as the blog posts themselves, and provides a number of services. Despite the success of previous work on emotion prediction, existing approaches usually model documents under the Ã¢â¬Å"bag-of-wordÃ¢â¬ assumption, so that the relationship across words is not taken into account. This also prevents us from further understanding the connections between emotions and contents in the topic level, because it is arguable that emotions should be linked to specificdocument topics. D.M. Blei, A.Y. Ng, and M.I. Jordan  proposed Latent Dirichlet Allocation generative probabilistic model for collections of discrete data such as text corpora. LDA is a three-level hierarchical Bayesian model, in which each item of a collection is modelled as a finite mixture over an underlying set of topics. Each topic is, in turn, modelled as an infinite mixture over an underlying set of topic probabilities. In the context of text modelling, the topic probabilities provide an explicit representation of a document. Joint latent topic model for text and citations .The Pairwise-Link-LDA model combines the ideas of LDA  and Mixed Membership Block Stochastic Models  and allows modelling arbitrary link structure. However, the model is computationally expensive, since it involves modelling the presence or absence of a citation (link) between every pair of documents. The second model solves this problem by assuming that the link structure is a bipartite graph. As the name indicates, Link-PLSA-LDA model combines the LDA and PLSA models into a single graphical model. I. Titov and R. McDonald  proposed statistical model which is able to discover corresponding topics in text and extract textual evidence from reviews supporting each of these aspect ratings Ã¢â¬â a fundamental problem in aspect-based sentiment summarization. Achieve high accuracy, without any labelled data except the user opinion ratings. Rosen-Zvi et al.  merged author factors with document generation to jointly estimate document contents as well as author interests. From the perspective of model generation, their author variable shares some similarity with the emotion variable in this model. The key difference lies in different sampling distributions. Their author variable is chosen uniformly from a set of authors while emotion variable is sampled from multinomial distributions by the emotions contributed by web users. 3. PROPOSED SYSTEM An online text collection D is associated with a vocabulary W,and a set of predefined emotions E. Comparing the extracted and optimized content with the already founded latent topics that relating to the extracted and optimized content with the already founded latent topics that relating to each emotion. Based on the result we are finding which emotion the particular content represents. Based on the user emotion requests the categorized content will display. Objective is to accurately model the connections between words and emotions, and improve the performance of its related tasks such as emotion prediction. Both the emotion Ã¢â¬âterm model and emotion-topic model can be applied to emotion prediction by estimating their probability to evaluate their prediction performance.In this paper, proposing a joint emotion-topic model for social affective text mining, which introduces an additional layer of emotion modelling into Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA). Proposed model follows a three-step generation process for affective terms, which first generates an emotion from a document-specific emotional distribution, then generates a latent topic from a Multinomial distribution conditioned on emotions, and finally generates document terms from another Multinomial distribution based on latent topics. Because its exact inference is intractable, developing an approximate inference method based on Gibbs sampling. For social emotionprediction, the proposed model outperforms the emotion term model, term-based SVM model, and topic-based SVM model significantly. 3.1 EMOTION TERM MODEL Emotion-term model,follows the Naive Bayes method by assuming words are independently generated from social emotion labels. It generates each word wi of document d in two sampling steps, i.e., sample an emotion ei according to the emotion frequency count d, and sample a word wi given the emotion under the conditional probability P (w|e). The model parameters can be learned by maximum likelihood estimation. It can be formally derived based on the word and emotion frequency counts. To use the emotion-term models for predicting emotion on a new document d, apply the Bayes theorem (1)under the term independence assumption. P (e|d) = P(d|e) Ã ± P (d | e) P(e)(1) P(d) where P(e) is the a priori probability of emotion e. It can again be calculated by maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) from the emotion distribution of the entire collection. 3.2 TOPIC MODEL Many topic models have been proposed and well-studied in previous work, of which, LDA  is one of the most successful models. LDA addresses the over fitting problem faced by other models like pLSI by introducing a Dirichlet prior over topics and words. Although LDA can only discover the topics from document and cannot bridge the connection between social emotion and affective text, for the ease of understanding in the following description, a simple review of LDA is here. In the first study of LDA, proposed a convexity-based variation inference method for inference and parameter estimation under LDA. P(zi=j|z-i,w)Ã ± + Ã ² + Ã ± (2) + | W | Ã ² +|Z| Ã ± where n-i means the count that does not include the current assignment of zi, is the number of times word w has been assigned to topic j, and is the number of times a word from document d has been assigned to topic j. Fig.1. Proposed System Architecture 3.3 EMOTION TOPIC MODEL Emotion-term model simply treats terms individually and cannot discover the contextual information within the document. While topic model utilizes the contextual information within the documents, it fails to utilize the emotional distribution to guide the topic generation. In this paper, proposing a new approach called emotion topic model. The importance of this latent topic generation in the affective text mining is very much Likewise, different latent topics are discovered based on the emotions involved in it. Those latent topics should be collected together as a whole so that whenever needed it can be referred. After collecting each and every topic, it should be categorized on the basis of the different emotions such as love, happy, sad, sympathy, worry etc..They are used to select the document based on the preference assigned to the emotions. Relate the social emotions with an affective term that predict the emotions automatically from the text. After collecting and categorizing each latent topic based on different emotions, are stored to check with the extracted content. Then the topics are compared with the extracted content as a result of which it will generate topics and get processed. For each word the posterior distribution on emotion Ã¢â¬Å"Ãâ Ã Ã¢â¬ and topic Ã¢â¬Å"zÃ¢â¬ based on the following conditional probabilities which can be derived by the following equations (3). P(Ãâ Ã i=e|Ã ³, Ãâ Ã -i, z, w;Ã ±,Ã ²) Ã ± Ã ±+* Ã ³ di,e(3) |z|Ã ±+Ã ³di,eÃ ªÃ ¾Ã â Where e and z are the candidate emotion and topic for sampling.di D indicates the document from which current word wi is sampled.is the number of times topic z has been assigned to emotion e. 4. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS This section presents the experimental results on both joint emotion topic modelling and its application to emotion prediction .News articles were collected from the news portal and the input dataÃ¢â¬â¢s are pre-processed to remove stem and stop words and perform tagging to extract the explicit words.Word frequency, document frequency were calculated. Emotion term model performs calculating word frequency and the emotion frequency count and the corresponding terms and emotion were obtained. (a) Topic modelling which generates set of topics for the input documentConsists of the word and associated topic. (b) Emotion topic model bridges the connection between words and the emotion with the associated topic. (c) The standard parameters which are used for experimental evaluation are precision,recall and accuracy.Precision is defined as number of retrieved relevant documents divided by total number of retrieved documents and the recall is the number of retrieved relevant document divided by total number of relevant documents in the database. Accuracy can be calculated as relevant document retrieved in top T returns divided by T. Precision = Number of retrieved relevant document Total number of retrieved documents Recall = Number of retrieved relevant document Total number of relevant documents Accuracy = Relevant documents retrieved in top T T (d) Emotion Distribution (e)Precision, recall and f-score Fig.2.(a)Emotion term model (b) Topic model (c) Emotion topic model(d) Emotion distribution(e)Precision, recall 5.CONCLUSION This paper, presents and analyse a new problem called social affective text mining, which aims to discover and model the connections between online documents and user-generated social emotions. To this end, proposing a new joint emotion-topic model by augmenting Latent Dirichlet Allocation with an intermediate layer for emotion modelling. Rather than emotion term model that treats each term in the document individually and LDA topic model that only utilizes the text co-occurrence information, emotion-topic model allows associating the terms and emotions via topics which is more flexible and has better modelling capability. REFERENCES  R. Cai, C. Zhang, C. Wang, L. Zhang,Ã Music Recommendation Using EmotionalÃ Allocation,Ã¢â¬ Proc. 15th IntÃ¢â¬â¢l Conf. Multimedia, pp. 553-556, 2007.  C. Strapparava and R. Mihalcea,Ã Ã¢â¬Å"Semeval-2007 Task 14: Affective Text,Ã¢â¬ Ã Proc. Fourth IntÃ¢â¬ ¢fl Workshop SemanticÃ Evaluations (SemEvalÃ¢â¬Ë07), pp. 70-74, 2007.  C. Yang, K.H.-Y. Lin, and H.-H. Chen,Ã Ã¢â¬Å"Emotion Classification Using Web BlogÃ Corpora,Ã¢â¬ Proc. IEEE/WIC/ACM IntÃ¢â¬ ¢flÃ Conf. Web Intelligence (WI Ã¢â¬Ë07), pp. 275-Ã 278, 2007.  C.O. Alm, D. Roth, and R. Sproat,Ã Ã¢â¬Å"Emotions from Text: Machine Learning for Text-Based Emotion Prediction,Ã¢â¬ Proc. Joint Conf. 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Ã¢â¬Å"Learning to laugh (automatically)Ã¢â¬ : Computationalmodels for humour recognition. Computational Intelligence, 22(2), pages 126Ã¢â¬â142.  A.-M. Popescu and O. Etzioni, Ã¢â¬Å"Extracting Product Features and Opinions from Reviews,Ã¢â¬ Proc. Joint Conf. Human Language Technology and Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (HLT/EMNLP Ã¢â¬â¢05), pp. 339-346, 2005.  B. Pang, L. Lee, and S.Vaithyanathan, Ã¢â¬Å"Thumbs Up? Sentiment Classification Using Machine Learning Techniques,Ã¢â¬ Proc. Conf. Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP Ã¢â¬â¢02), pp. 79-96, 2002.  M. Rosen-Zvi, T. Griffiths, M. Steyvers, and P. Smyth, Ã¢â¬Å"The Author-Topic Model for Authors and Documents,Ã¢â¬ Proc. 20th Conf. Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence (UAI Ã¢â¬â¢04), pp. 487-494, 2004.  Alm, C.O., Roth, D. and Sproat, R. (2005). Ã¢â¬Å"Emotions from text: machine learning for textbased emotion predictionÃ¢â¬ . 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Ninth Conf. European Chapter of the Assoc. for Computational Linguistics (EACL Ã¢â¬â¢06), 2006.  Mihalcea, R. and Liu, H. (2006). Ã¢â¬Å"A corpus-based approach to finding happinessÃ¢â¬ , in the AAAI Spring Symposium on Computational Approaches to Weblogs, Stanford, California, USA.  G. Mishne and M. de Rijke, Ã¢â¬Å"Capturing Global Mood Levels Using Blog Posts,Ã¢â¬ Proc. AAAI Spring Symp. Computational Approaches to Analysing Weblogs (AAAI-CAAW Ã¢â¬â¢06), 2006.  I. Titov and R. McDonald, Ã¢â¬Å"A Joint Model of Text and Aspect Ratings for Sentiment Summarization,Ã¢â¬ Proc. 46th Ann. Meeting of the Assoc. for Computational Linguistics (ACL Ã¢â¬â¢08), June 2008.  Mihalcea, R., Corley, C., Strapparava, C. (2006). Corpus-based and Knowledge-basedÃ¢â¬Å"Measures of Text Semantic SimilarityÃ¢â¬ . Paper presented at the Proceedings of theNational Conference on Artificial Intelligence.  Lichtenstein, A., Oehme, A., Kupschick, S., JÃ ¼rgensohn, T. (2008). 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College of Engineering (Autonomous), Tiruchengode-637215
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Utilitarianism Theory Summary and Evaluation Utilitarianism is an ethical theory that is generally credited to Jeremy Bentham. Bentham and John stuart Mill are seen to be the two leading exponents of the theory. Mill, writing after Bentham, adapted some of his ideas into a slightly different version of utilitarianism. Utilitarianism is a consequentialist theory, which means that it decides on what is right or wrong solely on the consequences of an action or the circumstances that this action brings about. The theory is relative, it judges situations separately and does not impose set rules of guide lines on actions to be observed in every case. This avoids the major problems one sees with absolutist theories such as Natural law or Kantian ethics. What is right is what brings about pleasure and Thomas Carlyle raised the criticism that it is a doctrine worthy only of swine as a direct criticism of this. What Carlyle is saying is that those adhering to a utilitarian way of morality are only satisfying basic desires and are just an imals. As humans with reason and intelligence it seems Carlyle wants more out of an ethical theory than what Utilitarianism gives. I will discuss Benthams utilitarianism and then Mills adaption in an attempt to show Mill escapes the problems faced by Bentham. Bentham saw humanity as being completely centered around two things. Nature has placed mankind under the governance of two sovereign masters, pain and pleasure. For this reason his ethical theory is entirely concerned with the two. Bentham saw it that everyone wants pleasure and nobody wants pain. From this he derived the principle of utility which was that the good is whatever brings the greatest happiness to the greatest number of people. What is right to do in every situation is bring about the most pleasure and minimise the pain. Every moral dilemma is judged individually as even though the circumstances may be familiar to ones we have faced before there are always variables, for example in the size of the group effected. So what was right to do in a previous situation may not be the best thing to do in the new situation we are faced with. Bentham understood that all situations are different and created a way of comparing levels and pain and pleasure brought about by a decision w ith a system of calculation. Bentham called this the felicific calculus. Each situation would be judged on seven criteria: Intensity (how strong the pleasure is), duration (how long it lasts), certainty or uncertainty of the pain or pleasure, propinquity (how soon the pleasure will occur), fecundity (the question of whether an action will be followed with similar good circumstances, purity (that it wont be followed by sensations of a negative kind) and finally the extent of the pleasure. In the felicific calculus any individual counts as one, he did not discriminate. Bentham proposes that in every situation we look at all these fields and through doing so we could calculate whether one action would be better than a different one. For example if the extent of the pleasure in the long run outweighs a temporary disadvantage or negative situation then the action is right. One may argue that his attempt to turn morality into a type of math is in fact impractical, will we always have the time to weigh up all the issues surrounding our action. Also how can we really measure pleasure, we cant easily attempt to do it in units. Bentham was anti-elitist in the sense that he saw everyones pleasure to count as the same and saw all types of pleasure under the title pleasure. He argued himself that pushpin is as good as poetry. This is where Carlyle is criticising him. He sees utilitarianism to be promoting a lifestyle that is very unattractive in the sense of only catering for your basic needs and desires. For example through this type of utilitarianism one can justify stealing in a lot of cases and things like sleeping around. As long as you are happy and maximising your pleasure then you are doing the right actions. Bentham himself would argue that it is better to be this type of person satisfied than an individual attempting to be more virtuous dissatisfied. As animals do not possess reason or intelligence like humans all they do is satisfy their basic urges. Carlyle was saying that we have this ability to consider further our own actions and be far more compassionate that Bentham seemed to be saying we can be and for this reason he saw utilitarian ideas as acceptable only to animals. One example given to display this is a situation in which a number of guards holding a prisoner are beating him. As there are more guards beating than people being beaten the suffering is outweighed and so the clearly immoral act being done by the guards is accepted. Obviously it is not in all cases that Benthams ideas justify immoral actions but for the sole reason that it does justify them at times it is strongly criticised. Utilitarianism can be seen as quite the opposite, as a very compassionate theory, with the example of widely disputed topic of euthanasia. Utilitarians could argue that killing some one to save them from years of potential suffering is the right thing to do. They are taking into account the desires of the individual and by weighing up pain and pleasure to come to a compassionate conclusion. Nevertheless, Carlyles criticism is a very strong one and in the face of it this where J.S. Mills adaption can be promoted. Mill, attracted by Benthams theory, still saw this great problem with it and attempted to change parts of it to counter the issue. Mill did this by describing happiness as being the thing we are seeking instead of pleasure. He still saw this idea of there as being one sole intrinsic good but it instead of it being a purely physical pleasure he looked at it in in a different way: happiness as a mental pleasure. For what is good and what one desires are different things. This more virtuous attempt at utilitarian thinking promotes mental pleasure often over physical pleasure. Mill thought that my seeing all pleasure as equal was a fundamental problem with Benthams thinking so he believed that by discriminating between different types pleasure and in turn ordering them he could start to move away from the unattractiveness of Benthams utilitarianism. He stated that h e did not see pushpin as being equal to poetry Mill was involving a sense of dignity that he believed all of us had and argued that physical pleasure would in many cases be rated below mental pleasures and so straight away we can see the improvement he has made to the theory in light of Carlyle criticism. Returning to the previous situation in which we see the prisoner being beaten for the pleasure of the guards, now with these higher and lower order pleasure, things are different. Now the utilitarian can argue that the sadistic pleasure the guards are getting out of the beating would rate much lower than say the mental pleasure that comes with being a compassionate human being. So now the suffering of the prisoner outweighs the marginal pleasure, in comparison to a theory with no higher or lower order pleasure, so the act is not justified. Mill said himself that it was better to be a human dissatisfied than a pig satisfied and better to be Socrates dissatisfied than a fool satisfie d. Through seeking out mental pleasure or physical ones Mill would argue we are acting in the right way. It would be obvious in many case which pleasure rates over another, for example sadistic pleasure being badly rated. However one big criticism of Mill is that there are too many situations in which it is too hard to discriminate as to which pleasure rates over the other. One rather tedious example is the question of whether the music of Bach is equal to that of Mozart. Still the criticism raised is an issue. Mill argued for the idea of competent judgement, he stated that one could see if a pleasure was higher than another if the majority of a group of competent judges, one was competent to judge if they had experienced both pleasure in question, came to the decision that it rated over the other. Although Mill is trying to promote right moral action he undoubtedly faces some difficulty in doing so through his utilitarian approach. A label applied to Mills thinking after his time was Rule utilitarianism. This terminology comes about from Mills discussion that from our past experiences we saw it plausible to adhere once again to certain behaviour or decisions that in the past were seen to bring about or promote a great sense of happiness. If the action is always good in different circumstances then we can create for ourselves a type of rule which is that we should always do this certain action in every situation. Bentham was described as being an Act utilitarian as he saw the opposite: every situation should be judged independently every time. Whether or not these labels are a fair representation of the two different theories within utilitarianism is questionable but the strange sense of the utilisation of absolute ideas is interesting. His adaption tries to compensate for the lack of absolutism that is often felt to be essential when looking for a good code of ethics. One example would be promoting truth telling. One should always tell the truth as it brings about peace of mind and is recognised as the morally right thing to do a lot of the time. However by appea sing to the idea of absolutism this section of his thinking takes on the burdens that absolutism bears. The are always certain situations in which the absolute law seems like the worst thing to do; the extreme example used by Kant of not lying to a murderer who is going to kill your friend and asking his whereabouts would seem like a completely immoral act. Also Mill is criticised for falling short in the exact same way that Bentham has. Mill does not discuss the distribution of happiness and similarly we could see his theory allowing unjust or undeserved unhappiness. In terms of number, could we increase the number of sadistic prison guards to an extent where the scale tips back over to the other side again? Through looking at the charge that utilitarianism is a doctrine worthy only of swine I also see it necessary to show that Mill offered proof for the principle of utility. He argued that happiness is desirable as an end, stating that something was visible if people can see it and in the same way something was desirable if people desire it. People do actually desire happiness. Through showing that everyones happiness is desirable and only happiness is desirable as an end I think that Mill is showing that his version of utilitarianism is not a doctrine worthy only of swine instead it is an ethical code promoting a good sense of living. It is true that Mill has succeeded where Bentham appears to have failed so when discussing the charge I do not think you could answer in way that is so black and white. I would argue that this charge against Benthams theory is not undeserved as it seems foolish to be basing a code of morality on the concept of physical pleasure. When looking at this charg e against Mills adapted version I see it as ungrounded. What Mill is trying to Promote is a virtuous code of living in which some one acts in what is considered across the board to be a morally good way of living. I see Mills writing to be worthy of far more than merely swine. Peter Vardy and Paul Grosch-The Puzzle Of Ethics. Pages 63-72 and 81-83, 1999 John Cottingham-Western Philosophy and Anthology. Pages 512-517, 2008 J.S Mill-Utilitarianism and On Liberty: Including Essay on Bentham and Selections from the Writings of Jeremy Bentham and John Austin. Pages 12 -16 John Rawls- Classical utilitarianism, Theory of justice, pages 22-27, Oxford ,1971 pages 22-27
Monday, August 19, 2019
In a perfect world, violence, plane crashes floods and other disasters would not occur. Disease and illness would be non-existent. Emergency medical services would not have a basis for fruition. Unfortunately, the world is not perfect place. EMT's and other EMS workers are vital to all societies globally. According to the American College of Emergency Physicians, the definition of an emergency services is, " Emergency services are those health care services provided to evaluate and treat medical conditions of recent onset and severity that would lead a prudent layperson, possessing an average knowledge of medicine and health, to believe that urgent and/ or unscheduled medical care is required." The following pages will illustrate the struggles of an emergency medical technician and other emergency medical service workers. Deciding to become apart of an EMS workforce is a life changing decision. One must take into consideration many factors that may hamper one's effort to perform the job correctly. Violence against emergency workers continues to emerge (Anderson 1991). In recent years, EMT's and EMS workers have become targets in urban areas. EMS workers enter urban war zones daily and face many man made dangers. One peril an EMT may face is the continuing growth of gangs. Gangs have branched out from big cities into smaller towns (Staten 1991). Frequently, EMS responders are attacked without provocation. In most cases, the EMS workers are responding to a call when they are ambushed by a variety of things. It has been documented by the Emergency Net New Service that fire bombings on EMS workers and their vehicles have increased in at least ten major U.S. cities (Staten 1995). In addition, EMT's and EMS workers are faced with the dangers of driving into already volatile situations. For example, after the Rodney King verdict, cities such as Los Angeles, California and Atlanta Georgia erupted into massive riots. EMS responders were thrust into physical danger. Both cities were set afire and gangs of people rushed to loot local stores (Feiner 10). EMT's and other EMS personnel put their lives in direct jeopardy to perform their jobs. Besides rioting and gang violence, EMS personnel are often faced with other more maniacal acts of violence, such as domestic terrorism. The most gruesome example of this is the case of the bombing of the Federal Building in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. The direct targets for this disaster were the civil servants that worked in the building.
Sunday, August 18, 2019
Educating Rita Civilization has a tendency to attempt to divide people into different groups. Our environment weighs and measures us; then places us into a certain company. Frank and Rita are the very example of two persons placed in very different social compartments. Their places in society differ greatly as do their roles as student and teacher. And yet as one examines the script of Educating Rita it seems as though two people, who society has attempted to separate from each other in every possible way, still have the world in common. The first big difference in the two characters' social status is their sex. Rita is a woman, Frank is a man. Though we may try to deny it, there is quite a difference between what is expected from men and women. Age as well plays a large part in terms of theses expectations. Frank is middle-aged whereas Rita is still in her late twenties. Rita is facing masses of peer pressure, it is expected of her that she should now have children and become a housewife. Her being fairly young and married, the thought of her going back to school instead of having babies is unheard of, quite abnormal, and even unacceptable. Frank, in contrast, is a middle-aged man and a divorcÃ ©. As far as social pressure is concerned, he is now free to do his liking. He has already filled his middle-class duties; he is educated, he has something of a career and he has been married. He now has a girlfriend, which people regard that he is entitled to. Nobody expects him to make a deeper commitment to his girlfriend, due, it seems, to the fact that he has already been married once. These differences lead to a certain lack of empathy on Frank's behalf. Frank doesn't understand Rita's situation, the social pressure put on her is incomprehensible to him. Frank believes that life is a simple matter: don't love your husband anymore, get a divorce; don't want to have children, don't have children. What he does not see, is that Rita is bound by the ways of her society, she's not allowed to differ from her mates, which has a greater impact on her than Frank seems to realise. In a way of thinking, Frank is free and Rita is not. Rita is bound by a lot of expectations to live up to, whereas Frank has leave to simply enjoy the rest of his
Saturday, August 17, 2019
The Ku Klux Klan Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In the southern states of the USA, the period known as Ã¢â¬Å"ReconstructionÃ¢â¬ created a pressure and fear and hate for the African Americans among many of the southern white people. This was because the African Americans were now free people and had the same rights as the white people. This angered many white people and they created groups to support their beliefs and to allow people with the same ideas to gather together and share their ideas. This is how the Ku Klux Klan came into existence. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The Ku Klux Klan began in Pulaski, Tennessee on December 24, 1865. Six men devised the earliest version of the Klan. These men were all ex-confederate soldiers. They were trying to think of an idea to cheer them up because they were upset at the outcome of the Civil War. One of the men suggested that they should start a club and the others thought that would be a good idea. They named their club the Ku Klux Klan after the Greek word kuklos, which meant circle. They chose the circle because it symbolizes unity and perfection. Then they created names for the ranks of the men. The leader was called the Grand Cyclops. These men were so pleased at what they had created that they wanted to show everyone. So they wrapped themselves and their horses up in white sheets and rode through their town. They terrified everyone especially the African Americans. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Even though the club was only meant for fun it became out of control in the years to follow. After the members saw the effects it had on people they decided to use it to their advantage. They first started as a local racial terrorist group that would play evil pranks on black families by burning their houses and churches. But they soon realized what an impact they had on their enemies. They soon started directing their violent actions toward Jews, Orientals and all other non-white races. They even were violent to Catholics and other religions that were not Christians. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã By 1879 the membership of the Klan was around eighty-five thousand members. Many of the visitors that came to the town of Pulaski were inspired by the KKK and when they went back home they decided to set up their own dens and branches of the KKK. There were more than a dozen of these groups all of, which were located in the south.... ... society as well as the USA. They also intend on stopping abortion, outlaw homosexuality, and inter-racial marriages. They believe that everyone should be proud of their race, which means White people have that right to. They feel that all anti-white policies should be disregarded and people be hired, promoted, and given scholarships according to their ability and for no other reasons. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Although the Ku Klux Klan has gone through many changes since itÃ¢â¬â¢s beginning, the present Klan is not that different from the original Klan. Even though the Klan has some new objectives it still believes that the White race is superior to all others. They feel that the only way races can develop their full potential and culture is through racial separation. They believe that every race has the natural right to have pride in its heritage and work to better itself. But why is it that the White race is told that it cannot have White Pride. Works Cited Imperial Klans of America. http://www.kkkk.net/index.html. 13 April 1998 Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. http:/www.kkk.com/intro.htm#stands. 11 April 1998 Ku Klux Klan. http:/www.britanica.com. 1999-2000 Britanica.com Inc.
Educational techniques have been around for many centuries. Through the centuries, teaching techniques have not changed. However, many methods have emerged which has been defined as educational theory. Students have many different learning styles that help them learn. Teachers must learn how to teach to include each of the learning styles so each student learns what they need to know. Teaching students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can be very difficult to teach. These students need to be active in what they are doing and what they are learning. Using the kinesthetic learning style will help tremendously when teaching a child with ADHD. Learning disabilities are problems that affect the brainÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to receive, process, analyze, or store information. These problems can make it difficult for a student to learn as quickly as someone who is not affected by learning disabilities. Certain kinds of learning disabilities can interfere with a personÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to concentrate or focus and can cause someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s mind to wander too much. Other learning disabilities can make it difficult for a student to read, write, spell, or solve math problems. Research is being conducted daily to be able to determine which learning theories work for which student. Some students learn better by listening, some by doing and some by hearing. Although, teaching can be dated back to the bible, Proverbs 4:2 states Ã¢â¬Å"I give you sound learning, so do not forsake my teachingÃ¢â¬ (Holy Bible, NIV). Romans 12:7 states that Ã¢â¬Å"if it is serving, then serve; if it is teaching, then teachÃ¢â¬ (Holy Bible, NIV). No matter what a teacher teaches, as long as each student gets what they deserve out of the teaching is the only thing that matters. Learning Theory and its Importance Every teacher has his or her own learning theory. Not every theory is the same. One of the best known learning theories in use today is the PiagetÃ¢â¬â¢s theory (Slavin, 2012). Piaget believed that there were four factors that lead to a childÃ¢â¬â¢s development. Children use aids and begin to understand how things work which helps the child learn how to do things for themselves. Another factor is that children learn from socializing with other children their age. This gives the child an opportunity to view other childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviors and learn from each behavior. The child will then be able to develop their own patterns and personality. From there, the child can make their own decisions and find out what works best for them. Culture plays a big part in ways that affect learning theories. Vygotsky thought of the practice of education as a source rather than a result of the development of cognitive and learning skills. Many people before Vygotsky believed that people possessed the essential learning ability; however, it just needed to be coaxed out. Adolescence is one of the most trying times for a new Christian. According to Hosseini, Elias, Krauss, & Aishah (2010), adolescence is a point in time when an individual makes a choice in their future education, any major life roles, any relationships, and where a child establishes toward long-term goal to work toward to. This proves that it is imperative of having Christian principles of morality integrated into the school systems. Description of an Effective Teacher and Learning Environment Being an effective teacher takes a lot of determination, understanding and commitment and also considered to be an intentional teacher. When a teacher focuses too much of his or her instruction on one area, other instructional areas could drop. Slavin (2012) states that teaching involves planning and preparation, and the components which make a good teacher are decision making, reflection, application of education research and self-knowledge and self-regulation. Teachers need to be highly qualified according to federal law. The problem was that a negative impact of the requirement of having highly qualified teacher on recruitment and retention of personnel in rural areas was feared. Leading educators in education and special education have argued that the requirement may worsen the already significant critical shortages and attrition rate in rural special education. Another problem that was brought up was the cost to have highly qualified teachers and no extra compensation. Administrators fear that they might not be able to recruit special education teachers who meet the highly qualified standard. This legislation has made an impact on the rural areas of public and private schools. If the standards are set high, then individuals who would want to be teachers would see education as Ã¢â¬Å"not as attractive as other career optionsÃ¢â¬ (Courtade et. al. , 2010, p. 10). Everybody knows that there are no two children who learn at the same pace but only an effective teacher would understand this. An effective teacher would use different learning styles to help educate each child. Direct instruction and setting objectives are important in the classroom. Being able to translate directive instructions clearly and concisely is imperative. An effective teacher wants to make sure the student can understand what is being taught which makes the difference between good and great learning. Being able to effectively deliver educational material would allow the students to become confident with his or her ability to learn what is being taught. According to Slavin (2012), poor delivery of lesson plans can have a negative impact on a studentÃ¢â¬â¢s mental set. When a teacher has a good lesson delivery, it allows the students to become more confident; however, it is necessary that the lesson delivery be given using various delivery methods. During classroom instructions, a student does not only need ample time to learn new material, the student needs to review old material that was already taught. Having the time to review and learn new material shows the students how the old and new material goes together and instills the importance of all the material. Homework is a part of a lesson plan that is extremely important. Homework was once thought to be essential to learning and should be mandatory. It was once thought that homework was important and can further a studentÃ¢â¬â¢s education more than a student who did not complete the homework assignments. This was contradicted when research was conducted when students were allowed to choose whether or not they wanted to do homework. Results showed that the group who did not do the homework outperformed the students who did the mandatory homework (Gutarts & Baines (2010). Technology has become a big part in education. Technology has taken over the ranks for textbooks, emails, information, and paper. Several counties in Virginia have been using iPads and laptops instead of textbooks (Reid, 2011). Digital technology holds enormous potential for transforming instruction (Reid, 2011). The introduction of new technology into the classroom is an important component to help foster a learning environment that will encourage problem-solving and critical thinking (Reid, 2011). However, if a teacher chooses to use any form of technology in the classroom, the teacher needs to be well educated with technology. Some people would think that if a teacher was illiterate when it comes to computers, then why teach with them or use computers in a classroom. A teacher may not need to know the Ã¢â¬Å"ins and outsÃ¢â¬ of technology but he or she must know what websites are trusted, how to Ã¢â¬Å"surfÃ¢â¬ the internet, send out emails, set up blackboards, and use whiteboards (which can display what is on the computer onto the wall or blackboard). Technology has been very helpful when it comes to distance learning. Distance learning has helped many adults go back to college to get a degree when his or her life does not allow them to go to an actual classroom. Individuals with reading disabilities tend to become overwhelmed with reading and other activities during school. A child who cannot read well and is in middle school will not be able to take proper notes because he or she does not know how to write well either. In one study, a teacher used an iPad as a tool to help a fifth grade struggling reader with ADHD. The use of the iPad helped the student focus attention, and the iPad also helped the student become more metacognitive in reading. Using the iPad showed an increase of one yearÃ¢â¬â¢s growth in a six week period using pre- and post-assessments (McClanahan, Williams, Kennedy, & Tate, 2012). The student also gained in confidence and sense of being in control of his learning. While generalizations to other struggling readers with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder cannot be made, the success this student experienced suggests that the use of this device is worth serious consideration and research in similar contexts (McClanahan, et. al. , 2012). Learning Characteristics: Modalities and Ability Grouping Learning modalities are important when it comes to learning and teaching. The three different types of modalities include, visual, auditory, and kinesthetic. According to Anderson (n. d. ), learning modalities are the sensory channels or pathways through which individuals give, receive, and store information. Perception, memory, and sensation include the notion of modality. Approximately 25-30% of students are visual learners (Anderson, n. d. ). Visual learners are those who learn by seeing (Anderson, n. d. ). Approximately 25-30% of students are auditory learners (Anderson, n. d. ). Auditory learners are those who must hear what he or she hears to really understand it. Approximately 15% of students are tactile or kinesthetic learners (Anderson, n. . ). Tactile or kinesthetic learners need to feel and touch and get a better understanding if movement is involved. However, students can have mixed modalities which include visual and auditory, visual and kinesthetic, and auditory and kinesthetic. There are about 25-30% of students who have mixed modalities (Anderson, n. d. ). Learning modalities are important but it is not the only thing that helps the students. Teachers need to be prepared in their subject and need to be knowledgeable in the area they are teaching. Just because a teacher is knowledgeable, does not make them an intentional teacher and does not make them knowledgeable in writing lesson plans. If a teacher does not know how to deliver the knowledge to the students, the students are not going to learn as much as they should. When a teacher makes a lesson plan, it helps the teacher to be prepared and helps the teacher know how to convey much needed knowledge to the students. The concept of ability grouping goes along with learning modalities. Ability grouping allows students to group together based on their ability to learn. Ability grouping allows students of higher level to be grouped with high achieving students. Ability grouping also allows students of lower level to be grouped with lower achieving students. This type of grouping makes the assumption that the teacher will be able to teach the students based on the same level. This causes a problem because it can cause the lower level students to fall further being the higher level students because they are not taught the same things and the same ways. Personal Reflection When conducting the Learning Styles Profile on myself, it made me aware of my learning styles which is that I am a more of a visual learner than anything but I feel that I am more of a kinesthetic learner so I would classify myself as having mixed modalities. Just watching something being done would not keep my attention but if I watched something being done while I was doing it, then I would have a better understanding. I would use this as part of my theory because an effective teacher has to have something for everyone. An effective teacher would have instructions for the auditory, visual and kinesthetic students so that each student can learn his or her own way. When conducting the Philosophical Methodology of Learning Profile, it showed that I scored highest and I have strong feeling in progressivist, and traditionalist methodology. My lowest score was actually a negative score and that was in socialist methodology. Inasmuch as I am an extreme progressivist, not all of it is true. I believe that everything has to have a point and to be proven but that does not mean that I deny the existence of God. I really believe that in the progressive mode the teacher becomes the facilitator or the director of learning, while the student becomes the center of focus as an individual. I believe that school revolves around the children. I believe that if a teacher looks at a class as a whole and not individuals, the individuals who need help will not get it. A child with special needs Ã¢â¬Å"slips through the cracksÃ¢â¬ all the time, and in my opinion, that is not acceptable. The supervisor of learning can direct the learning from different perspectives ultimately considering the needs of the individual. An experience centered approach stems from this philosophical methodology using projects, cooperative group activities, and critical thinking and problem solving, decision-making skills. Getting children to work together as well as separately will help the children get ideas off of other students. This way, the student will know if they need extra help in a certain area and can ask for help when needed. Conclusion Each child learns differently. Each teacher has to have his or her own theory on what would work in his or her classroom. Schools are for learningÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"teaching promotes learning, but learning also takes place through experience and individual studyÃ¢â¬ (Van Brummelen, 2009, p. 13). A teacher must Ã¢â¬Å"trust in the Lord with all your heart and lean not on your own understandingÃ¢â¬ (Proverbs 3:5). Inasmuch as educational theories have been around for centuries, times change, the way that teachers educate students will change, and the way children learn will change. Teachers must adapt to the Ã¢â¬Å"New AgeÃ¢â¬ which includes many forms of technology and new learning theories.
Friday, August 16, 2019
Parachute after shower Hair Cream Introduction Parachute after shower hair cream for men, is a hair styling cream that can be used daily to style your hair. It has aqua moisturizers & since it is made in an oil-in-water emulsion, it is completely non-sticky. Parachute after shower hair cream contains coconut milk proteins which keeps hair nourished. The need for males to look good has never been more important. More and more males in India are realizing the importance of Ã¢â¬Å"great looking hairÃ¢â¬ & want a product that can be used to Ã¢â¬Å"style hair daily. Ã¢â¬ The reason why I use Parachute after shower?After shower hair cream was launched in Mumbai 2005. This hair cream was only meant for the younger generation who were looking for a product that would help them to Ã¢â¬Å"look the partÃ¢â¬ Everyday. The reason I use this product is it easily available in the market and ItÃ¢â¬â¢s an Indian company this product is less expensive as compare to others. If any other prod uct rather then this would be Ã¢â¬Å"BrylcreemÃ¢â¬ . BRAND AMBASSADOR To drive the brand the company had signed on Cricketer Yuvraj Singh, as there new Brand Ambassador who brings in a refreshing change. He is a complete fit with the brand because he is young, stylish, dashing, and flamboyant.Competitors Looking at the growth of the product many companies have come in with different products to match with this hair cream. They have even introduced many hair oil products as anti dandruff which can smoothen the hair and style also. This comparison with oil and gel had led into a competition in the market. Brylcreem: Ã¢â¬â BrylcreemÃ¢â¬â¢s purpose is to keep combed hair in place while giving it a shine or gloss. It is an emulsion of water and mineral oil stabilized with beeswax. Other ingredients are fragrance, calcium hydroxide, BHT, dimethyl oxazolidine, magnesium sulfate, and stearic acid.This was the first anti dandruff gel made for menÃ¢â¬â¢s. MenÃ¢â¬â¢s youth used this gel to style their hair and this gel would give them an entirely different look. Himalaya Herbal anti-dandruff hair cream: Ã¢â¬â The use of this cream can be used on wet hair. It can be used as massage to the hair also but only a small portion should be used. Use regularly before and after shampooing. Suitable for all hair types. Safe to use on artificially colored or permed hair.
Thursday, August 15, 2019
The main causes of conflict seem to derive from different attitudes towards key issues in the formation and operation of the joint venture, suggesting major differences in business culture and expectations as to how business should and is being conducted. The first and main problem described in the case study revolves around the ownership structure and the control over the JV. It seems that the Chinese Wahaha expectations were that their 49% of the JV meant full control, as the other 51% were split half-half between Danone and Peregrine through the Singapore registered Jinjia. Danone later took over PeregrneÃ¢â¬â¢s part essentially gaining the 51% of the JV and theoretically gaining effective control of the JV. This was not received well by the Chinese partner and later by the Chinese public which interpreted the move as a takeover, resulting in a JV based on distrust and hostility between the partners. Another source of conflict was due to the management structure agreed upon. Effective control of daily operations was handed to Zong and Wahaha, as the local China experts, while the only involvement Danone had was through the board of directors. It seemed Danone was attempting to empower the local partner and was not fully aware of the potential implications. This led to dissatisfaction on both sides, as Danone felt it knows very little in actual JV operations while Zong was feeling that Danone has left him to do all the hard work, only expecting to rip off the benefits of his efforts with little to no contribution.
Wednesday, August 14, 2019
A Licensed Vocational Nurse carries out the following: First of all, an LVN takes care of the individuals who are suffering from injuries, sicknesses, disabilities, and even those who are on their way to recovery (US.., 2006).They do the aforementioned though based on the physiciansÃ¢â¬â¢, as well as, registered nursesÃ¢â¬â¢ instructions (US.., 2006). Secondly, they are responsible for checking the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s blood pressure, pulse, temperature, and other vital signs (US.., 2006). Third, it is also an LVNÃ¢â¬â¢s responsibility to change wound dressings, check catheters, manage bedsores, provides alcohol massages, as well as, to inject patients (US.., 2006). Fourth, an LVN is also accountable for a patientÃ¢â¬â¢s allergic reactions to any medication or treatment provided for by the health care institution (US.., 2006). Fifth, it is an LVNÃ¢â¬â¢s task to carry out laboratory tests or gather samples for testing, feed patients, and note down the intake of food and fluid, as well as, the number of times the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s urinated and defecated (US.., 2006).Ã Sixth, it is the LVNÃ¢â¬â¢s function to oversee the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s personal hygiene as well (US.., 2006). The LVN ought to help out a patient when taking a bath, dressing up, etc (US.., 2006). Seventh, LVNÃ¢â¬â¢s oversee patients who are about to take in prescribed medicines or intravenous fluids, however, this is only a function of LVNs in selected States where it is permissible to do so (US.., 2006). Eighth, they also provide assistance in the delivery, as well as, feeding of babies (US.., 2006). Ninth, LVNs can take charge and direct nursing assistants and aides but such task is only delegated to those LVNs who are considered to be experienced (US.., 2006). Tenth, LVNs are also in charge of assessment of needs of the patients, development of care plans, supervision of nursing aides, organization of patientsÃ¢â¬â¢ records, setting of appointments, and other responsibilities which are categorically clerical (US.., 2006). Personal Qualities and Abilities Needed for Success An LVN who intends to become successful should have the following personal qualities and abilities: 1) exceedingly caring; 2) extremely sympathetic; 3) emotionally stable; 4) can keep up with continuous stress; 5) enthusiastic; 6) very devoted; 7) decision-making skills; 8) good communication skills; 9) flexibility in taking orders of supervisors; 10) positive outlook in life; 11) extreme patience; 12) etc Ã (US.., 2006). Educational Requirements An LVN is necessitated to accomplish a practical nursing program from any State-approved learning institution (US.., 2006). A future LVN should pass the following subjects: anatomy, basic nursing concepts, drug administration, medical nursing, nutrition, obstetrics, pediatrics, physiology, psychiatric, surgical nursing, etc (US.., 2006). A soon-to-be LVN should also undergo a clinical practice in the hospital or any other health care institution (US.., 2006). It should be kept in mind that such clinical practice should be supervised (US.., 2006). Also, it should be noted that typically, a high school diploma is asked for before admission to the program aforementioned (US.., 2006). Licensure, Certification and/ or Requirements The following are the requirements necessitated for LVNs to qualify from the licensing exam technically referred to as NCLEX-ON (US.., 2006). Possible Places of Employment There are vacancies for LVNs in the following: 1) hospitals; 2) nursing homes; 3) offices of doctors; 4) home health care services; 5) homes for the aged/elderly; 6) educational services or institutions; 7) outpatient care health institutions; 8) Federal agencies; and 9) state agencies (US.., 2006). Advancement Opportunities LVNs have a lot of advancement opportunities and some of these are the following: 1) LVNs can supervise nursing aides and even other LVNs (US.., 2006). This is especially allowed in nursing homes/nursing care facilities (US.., 2006). 2) LVNs can undergo training programs to promote himself or herself and become a Registered Nurse (US.., 2006). Wages, Benefits, Standard Payroll Deductions LVNs working at the doctorÃ¢â¬â¢s office earn approximately 30K per year, while those who serve at surgical hospitals earn about 33K per year, those involved in home health care services earn about 35K per year, while those in the nursing care facilities are given about 35.5K, and last but not least, those who are in the employment services earn almost 42K per year (US.., 2006). Benefits include the following: 1) annual leave; 2) holidays; 3) retirement; 4) social security; 5) dental & medical plan; 6) long-term disability plan; 7) life insurance; 8) credit union; 9) deferred compensation; 10) bilingual pay; 11) night shift differential; 12) etc (US.., 2006). Standard payroll deductions include: taxes, social security, etc (US.., 2006). Job Outlook for the Future Projected Employment in CALIFORNIA It is said that the job outlook in California is superior and there will be an increase in the employment rate because of the fact that the number of population for the elderly continuous to increase (Licensed.., 2007). Preparing for an Interview I will prepare myself for an interview by making sure to keep the following in mind: 1) know more about the health care institution where I am applying at to add to my credibility; 2) dress up professionally and presentably; 3) practice answering typical interview questions; 4) find people who will serve as my references that will surely sell me to potential employers; 5) bring my resume, driverÃ¢â¬â¢s license, social security and other pertinent documents; 6) sell myself by proudly and confidently stating my strengths, abilities, etc; and 7) say thank you to the person who provided me with the opportunity to be interviewed (Ten.., 2007). References Licensed Vocational Nurse California. (2007). Retrieved April 17, 2007 from http://education-portal.com/licensed_vocational_nurse_california.html Ten Tips on Preparing for a Job Interview. Retrieved April 17, 2007 from http://www.allbusiness.com/human-resources/careers-job-interview/11120-2.html US Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2006). Licensed Vocational Nurses. Retrieved April 17, 2007 from http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos102.htm