Friday, May 31, 2019
Petrus Christus and Raphael from the Age of the Renaissance The 15th century was the beginning of the age of the Renaissance. In western sandwich Europe it gave rise to sassy ideas, inventions, a new way of life, and most important a new way that people expressed themselves. It was an age of new techniques in word picture, sculpting, and creating a visual aspect of the Western European culture. Among many great artists of this period, two very important people to the artistic world and their kit and caboodle spun out -- Petrus Christus with The Lamentation and Raphael with The Agony in the Garden. The Lamentation was painted in 1450 and its one of Christus most beautiful works. It displays the strength of his work along with the simplicity of the designing and the clarity of depiction in the painting. The painting was done on plaster in oil beckoning by a wood panel. The overall painting is 10 1/8 x 14 inches, and painted surface covers 10 x 13 3/4 inches. The pain ting was later used as an inspirational peice of work to inspire a sculpted relief in Sicily. The Lamentation was done in one point linear perspective. Also authentic during the Renaissance, its a mathematical system at which all lines meet at one vanishing point to make the painting look three dimensional. The texture of the painting is smooth. Since it was done in oil the colors are vibrant. Doing this painting in oil gave Christus the ability to change his mind at will. Unlike with fresco painting, wher...
Thursday, May 30, 2019
IntroductionThe most dangerous creature in the world is the mosquito. Every year, mosquito-borne diseases, such as malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, viral encephalitis, and West Nile virus, cripple and kill millions of people. In fact, malaria, a parasitic mosquito-borne disease, infects more than 400 million people and kills more than devil million people each year. It is one of the principal causes of mortality in Africa, Southeast Asia, and Latin America. The most fatal version of the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, is transmitted by the mosquito Anopheles gambiae.Malaria infected CellDisease-transmitting mosquitoes are exposed to a wide range of deadly pathogens, and yet, they are able to survive infection. These invertebrates produce pattern course credit receptors, PRRs, which discern the specific molecular pattern associated with a pathogen. Upon recognition, the PRRs activate the insects immune system, which then isolates the pathogens by confining it within an other molecule.The Anopheles gambiae mosquito generates approximately cl PRR genes, each one with the ability to distinguish the molecular pattern for a particular pathogen. Another insect, the Drosophila melanogaster, more commonly known as the product fly, contains a gene, Dscam (short for Down Syndrome Cell Adhesion Molecule), that plays a large role in producing PRRs. A recent study has shown that the fruit flies ability to quarantine bacteria is impaired when the Dscam gene is silenced.The Anopheles gambiae species has a related gene known as AgDscam. In this study, AgDscam was silenced as a result, the mosquitos ability to resist infections with bacteria and defend against the malaria parasite Plasmodium was severely compromised.... ... drawing forth the infectious organism through the production of challenge-specific splice form repertoires enriched with receptor molecules, which flock easily identify molecules associated with microbial pathogens. The induction of this pat hogen is done via immune signaling pathways.The mammal down syndrome cell adhesion molecule gene does not brook as much alternative splicing as that of insects, and it can only produce three different mRNA forms. This may imply that Dscam in mammalian nervous systems have a more specialized function which utilizes antibodies for patter recognition.Overall, understanding the immune system of the Anopheles Gambiae vector is very important. If we can come familiar with the way its immune system works and how it recognizes Plasmodium, it could become helpful in devising control strategies for the spread of malaria.
Wednesday, May 29, 2019
Simulation Proliferation and the CityMr. Hand wears all black, is tall, thin, and pale. He floats round a dark city and ends far too many lines with a creepy self-affirming yesss. In Dark City (Alex Proyas 1998) we see over and over over again indications of the tropes and repetitions that make up the urban/filmic imagination. Not instead vampires, not quite grey aliens, not quite business men, not quite religious, not quite serial murderers, Mr. Hand and the other Strangers seem to be archetypal characters of the city. Is the imagination a domesticating function, territorializing wild occurrence and happenstance into termed rearrangements of what has come before? Or is it an volatile and infinite fountain of creativity? Modern metropolises and imagination present themselves together in such films as mutually helpful tools for inspecting one another and my effort is to use the city to discuss several imaginations. As is only obvious enough from one city dweller talking to another, imagination (moreso than agency or memory) is home to the ever changing city. Conversely, however, the city enables a specific citified imagination, with its own structure and economy. To begin, though, I want to interrogate, as a menses of departure, the philosophy of fantasy in a highly commercial, idyllic, anti-city movie.Those lucky children of the 80s witnessed the depiction and eventual summarization of the relation between fantasy, imagination, fiction, story, and control in the politico-creative manifesto, The Neverending Story (Wolfgang Peterson 1984). In the movie, Sebastian (a somewhat troubled young boy) reads a book (whose unfolding is the main content of the screen) and is then implicated in the collapse of a fantas... ...gination can be spoken of as a discourse that is ultimately on the nose about itself it is only by imagination that one imagination is to celebrate anything about the next yet this ethereality is not only not troubling for the stabi lity of simulation, but itself stabilized by the overproduction of simulacra such that its processing is pressured into skid reactive creativity. The strikingly bizarre and symptomatically fascinating point, though, is why imagination might have almost anything at all to do with simulation, but this is just the predominant strength of an imagination over its inscription, by representation, into broader circulating winds of reality its apparent nihilism.--------------------------------------------------------------------------------1 iek, Slavoj. Passion in the Era of Decaffeinated Belief. Thy Symptom Issue 5, wintertime 2004.
Erotica in Song of Solomon   The use of erotica stomach be seen truly clearly in the Song of Solomon. First of all, one moldiness keep in mind that it comes from the bible so one will not here vulgar things or even words that you know argon directly talking approximately sex. However, if you read closely, you can here the implicit remarks that these young lovers seems to be making, not only about each others body, but in addition about what each would akin to do with the other.       The first time that the male of the genre talks about his lover he describes her physical attributes. The most writ large is the description of her breast in which he says, Thy ii breasts be like two young roes that are twins(73). When you here this statement one can only think that he is referring to her large perky (since she says young) perfectly round breast. When he talks about his lovers thighs, he not only praises them, he describes what the very most upper part of hi s lovers thighs look like the joints of thy thighs are like jewels(71). One can only ask the question of how would this person know about someones most upper part of their thigh, the part that is right next to the genitalia? This leaves much to the imagination. He also talks about her navel saying, thy navel is like a round goblet, which wanteth not liquor(72). When trying to interpret this quote, one must first keep in mind the fact that this is taking interject during biblical times. During these times it was not proper for people to see, what was then looked at as X-rated parts of one another. Of course the exception to this rule would be if two people were married (or having an affair). So one can ask the question of how would this person know about the size and shape of another persons navel, which is hidden underneath everyday clothes? It seems not only does he know about its size and shape but also how it tastes. Again, the imagination of the reader is allowed to search the options.       not only is there sexual talk about physical appearances, but there is also talk about what will happen when the two of them are together alone. She is at one point looking for him and when she finds him she says that she held him and had him follow her and would not let go, .
Tuesday, May 28, 2019
How to Find and Buy Quality WebsitesReprinted with permission of VotanWeb.comMost buyers dont realize that very a few(prenominal) of all website buyers are successful in purchase a quality website. VotanWeb receives email form website buyers daily and the frustrations I hear from them are usually attractive much the same.Buyers need to know how the game works when buying a website. It is a circle like finding that great job it takes a lot of work and patience. Most website buyers are unprepared, unrealistic, and think they will easily find that perfect website. If you are thinking of buying a website, you need to carefully admit and follow the points below to be successful.To successfully buy a website you need to1. Have a one page Acquisition Criteria/Resume ready at all times - this info consists of the types of websites you are looking to purchase, what amount you reserve are willing to invest, how much adjusted net income you expect from the website you are buying i.e. ret urn etc. Make sure you have your name, address, all phone numbers to be contacted at, email address, and fax number. 2. You need to understand as a buyer that most websites listed for deal have little or no value you need to know this when you go searching. Searching for a website to buy is not like looking for a house to purchase. Houses may be overpriced, but most houses listed for sale have some inherent value. Most websites offered for sale have no value at all.3. Take confidentiality agreements seriously. If you are going in with someone else to buy a website (like a partner) make sure you both distinction and get it back to the owner immediately dont expect much information just about the website without signing one. Keep all info about websites you look at confidential you break the agreement and you will never have access to either other confidential information about any website on the internet. Of course, there are also legal ramifications in many instances.4. Neve r ever tell a website owner these things Dont vexation I have plenty of money to buy a website its none of your business, Im looking at all websites for sale I am not picky when website owners hear these comments and other nonsense from buyers they know youre not a professional and they will usually take on you.
How to Find and Buy Quality WebsitesReprinted with permission of VotanWeb.comMost vitiateers dont realize that actu anyy few of all website buyers ar successful in buying a quality website. VotanWeb receives email form website buyers daily and the frustrations I hear from them are ordinarily pretty much the same.Buyers need to know how the game works when buying a website. It is a lot like finding that great job it takes a lot of work and patience. Most website buyers are unprepared, unrealistic, and think they will easily find that perfect website. If you are thinking of buying a website, you need to carefully read and follow the points below to be successful.To successfully buy a website you need to1. Have a one page Acquisition Criteria/Resume create at all times - this selective information consists of the types of websites you are looking to purchase, what amount you have are willing to invest, how much adjusted net income you expect from the website you are buying i.e. return etc. Make sure you have your name, address, all phone numbers to be contacted at, email address, and fax number. 2. You need to understand as a buyer that most websites listed for deal have little or no value you need to know this when you go searching. Searching for a website to buy is not like looking for a house to purchase. Houses may be overpriced, but most houses listed for sale have some inherent value. Most websites offered for sale have no value at all.3. Take confidentiality agreements seriously. If you are going in with someone else to buy a website (like a partner) make sure you two sign and get it back to the owner immediately dont expect much information around the website without signing one. Keep all info about websites you look at confidential you break the agreement and you will never have access to any other confidential information about any website on the internet. Of course, there are also legal ramifications in many instances.4. Never ever tell a website owner these things Dont worry I have plenty of money to buy a website its none of your business, Im looking at all websites for sale I am not picky when website owners hear these comments and other nonsense from buyers they know youre not a professional and they will ordinarily pass on you.
Monday, May 27, 2019
Like the social and fashion trends of eras long gone, emo is non simply about the authority you dress it is a lifestyle. It culminates in your clothing, shoes, hairstyle, attitude and most importantly musical selection. This section describes the emo lifestyle and attitudes.People do tend to adopt at least the attitudes of the music they listen to most as yet if they dont admit it. This is because a lot of batch are not able to separate themselves from the ideas that are expressed. Music is different from other art-forms in that it penetrates the soul in a way something visual cannot.People seem to like to conference together for some reason, its in our nature, and emo is just another group or sub-culture. People join it because they might agree with some, most or all of what the group is generally about.Being Emo is just another way that people are trying to express themselves, really the same as other street styles, just with a different soundtrack. In the end, each of the people who put one over chosen to follow the scene is their own mortal- they are just part of a scene that is tipped as being defiant and unacceptable- something most three-year-old people are drawn to. To the TopWhat are Emos like?Firstly, labeling someone as an emo based on their hair style is a wretched way to interpret personal expression, just as calling someone a goth based on their preference for black clothing. Whether or not a person listens to emo music, writes emo poetry, or adopts an alternative lifestyle is a personal decision that does not automatically have anything to do with the colour or down of their hair. Emo styles are unique, individual looks that say a lot about the persons style, barely the emotions behind them may never be understood by anyone else.When referring to a persons personality and attitude, most definitions of emo include a number of the following terms sensitive, shy, quiet, sad, introverted, glum, self-pitying, mysterious and angst ridden . Depression and broken-heartedness are sometimes used to describe the emo personality. Emos feel society doesnt accept them, they are outcasts and nobody understands them This is generalising and it is important to note those into the emo / scene culture can obviously also be the reversion of the personality traits listed above as with anyone.At its core, emo is all about being upfront with your emotions. Hot Topic even issued a patch that read, cheer up, emo pip-squeak These personality traits are often identified by his/her music and fashion (generalising here). For example the emo band Hawthorne Heights contains multiple references to unrequited love, emotional and relationship problems. many another(prenominal) of these traits are present in most teenagers and not just emosThe courting of misery and death is a long-established teenage tradition. When death is a long way off, you can afford to be more morbid about it. In particular, Goths and Emos are a rebellion against spor ty, manly cultures.Frailness, which conveys a sense of vulnerability has been associated with the staminate emos in particular, but from what I know this isnt particularly valid.Finally touching on the term scene that has become popular since the emo subculture kicked off. background kids I believe are more about the style and looking like an emo without the personality of it all. In other words, scene kids are the ones that dress emo, but only because its a trend or you could say Scene is Emo without the emotion. The term is subject to significant debate like emo though.
Sunday, May 26, 2019
Irvin Alfalfa Mrs.. Fever English 1 (College Prep) April 26, 2013 spousals in the Renaissance Era Marriage customs today are truly different than those of the Renaissance era. During this era women had limited options in marriage and life. In Michael Bests article, The Age of Marriage, he indicates that although people did not get married as late as people believed, marriage was still not so much about fuck. For example, in some shocking houses marriages were indeed made at a young age for reasons of property and family alliance, (Best, 1).A clear example of this is that Caplet wants Juliet to marry Paris to expand their name and alliances. Juliet did not love Paris but was being forced into marrying him by her parents. In addition, girls were obliged to marry a man that was successful and rich. This narrowed down the limited pickaxes for women and although young girls had no interest in marrying they had to in order to get wealthier and have a better life. However, children of noble birth ran a great risk if they essay to marry without their parents prior approval, since they would be feet with no resources.Some marriages were in fact based on love but it was very rare because the bridegroom may not have been wealthy or known. Novel Guiders article, The Institution of Marriage in Renaissance Era, implies that marriage was both secular and sacred. For example, secularly, it served as a coming unneurotic of deuce parties interested in obtaining property, money, or political alliances. This was the main goal of noble homes. Some marriages were also sacred in that it assured the love of a man and woman and searched for reproduction.William Shakespearean ark displays the sacredness of love and marriage. However, some families did not force marriages because, the best marriages were those that were equally consensual and desired by both parties, (novel guide, 1). Freedom of choice varied for each child in a family. Each child had a certain amount of freedom in choosing their mate. The eldest son was below the greatest pressure since he inherited the majority of the land. His marriage was often critical to the families survival because they depended on him for financial support. This article somewhat contradictsMichael Bests article in which he states that all marriages where forced on. Jeremy Goldberg article, The Right to Choose Woman, Consent and Marriage in Late Medieval England, suggests that marriage was indeed forced on, but by not only parents. Jeremy Goldberg stick outs an example in which a girl was forced by her attacker to agree to marry him. This was very common during this era. Men caliber for money and land would force wealthy and innocent girls into marrying them. John Dale was a man who used physical violence and the threat of it to con Agnes into marrying him.In all, these three articles provide examples of marriage being an important for both men and woman. Some marriages were made to have more wealth and land whil e others were made simply because two partners loved each other very much. Some marriages were so important that men would take drastic measures in order to have a wife. And although women had very limited options and were considered a minority, they managed to have a good life if they chose the right man. Very much has changed during the years. Best, Michael. The Age of Marriage. Roughage Ballads. University of Victoria
Saturday, May 25, 2019
In the story presented on the thematically. Org describes the process and the manner patterns of parties involved. Mike Francis, Moody, and Standard and measly represent the lending or investors side. When Mike Francis devised the mortgage backed securities which gave birth to Cods Investors jumped onto these securities based on AAA ratings given to these securities by rating agencies such as Moody, and Standard and Poor. These rating agencies did collect lot of selective information which were barely few years old. They did not have enough relevant and good quality data and collected data was simply to enough.These rating agencies customd their preexisting theory field of operationss dont lose value In America to Interpret the evidences that the performance of these securities were AAA (Heath, et al. 1998). Individuals use their preexisting theories to Interpret the evidence (Heath, et al. 1998) is a bias which played a major role here. The investors from the global pool of mo ney jumped in with all guns for these securities. As demand grew more and more these mortgages were bought and more and more securities were created to investors. The entire process showed a confirmation bias.People who took risky adjustable loans to buy houses which they really could not put up with were essentially following other mint. Since most of the people were buying houses by taking these loans, it made sense for other to replicate the act. Calling explains, In his carry Influence Since and Practice (5th edition), this behavior as the principle of social proof. This principle states that we determine what Is correct by finding out what other people this Is correct (Lund et al. , 2007). Before 2000 most of people with low Income and low opinion score were not able to afford buying the kind f house they bought during the period after 2000.In the radio program Giant Pool of Money, case of Clarence Nathan is presented. Clarence works 3 jobs, did not made good income and had bad credit rating. l wouldnt lend to myself said Clarence. Even then he took the loan because everyone else was talking these kinds of loans and in fact the loan was made available to him. Even the behavior of investors, banks, and Wall Street followed the same pattern. Early on, investment banks were not interested in risky mortgages but when one bank started buying hose independent mortgages others Jumped in. It was acceptable to invest in supreme mortgages.
Friday, May 24, 2019
I will never for shit the day when Miss Webster was going to show us the snowdrops growing in the diminished three- command garden proscribedside the school keepers house, where we werent totallyowed to go. All through that winter, I remember Miss Webster adage, that the snowdrops had been asleep under the ground, but then they were up, and growing in the garden. I remember a frank speaking with Garath. He was telling me how he had imagined the snowdrops, but all he could imagine was one flake of the falling snow, bitter frail and white, and nothing like a flower.I recall that morning being very cold.I remember leaning against the kitchen table, I remember because I had put my brother, Geraint, who was three at the m, in the armchair in former of the fireplace. That morning my mum realise the time and began to shout, Hurry up or youll never get to school. God easework forcet her soul, she exactly past away a year ago. I remember I replied Miss Webster is going to show is the snowdrops todayI was so excited.My mum just looked at me and smiled, the rest is a bit fuzzy. scarcely I do remember my mother wondering where my father was, and abruptly he entered the room.My father was a big man every time he entered the room he filled the room with bigness. He stood in front of the fire because it was cold in the yard, and all I could involve was a faint light each side of my fathers wide body.I remember this future(a) moment vividly, my father said, its a cold wind, I cant remember a colder march. My father turned around and faced my mum and I, smiling because I weigh he had just realised that he was much warmer and the cold March wind was trapped outside the house.Youre a big boy for six, he said to me, and its all because you eat your breakfast up.This was a joke my father always said, and part of it was for me to just look and smile, all the time all I could think about were the snowdrops. Then, I remember thinking that it might be too cold to go an d see them. Or perhaps Miss Webster would only take the boys, I confirmed to myself, because we were stronger, and the girls could stay in school out of the cold.The Meredith boy is being buried this afternoon I overheard my father saying to my mother. I dont remember exactly what my father said but I remember my father saying that he couldnt go. And my mother replying, How old was he?twenty dollar bill, my father answered.Twenty last January, silly subatomic fool. That bike was too powerful for him- well, to go at that speed on wet, dark night. Ill never forget the anger barely sadness on my fathers face, as he continued to talk to my mother.Over seventy, the police said, straight into the back of a stationary truck, a terrible mess.He was a nice looking boy too. My mother added. All the Merediths are, replied my father. This one was very fri closedownly with the young teacher up at the school, Webber is it? Something like that.I remember turning around in shock thinking that it couldnt be Miss Webster or could it? But at that age I didnt really understand, all I could think was if my father was public lecture about Miss Webster, what did that mean?Then suddenly my mother coughed and looked at me nappyly.Oh? said my father, of course I should progress to remembered. Come on, David, or youll be late.The next moment is a bit hazy, but all I recall is it being much warmer when I got to school, and Edmund telling me a joke about Europe. I recall not seeing Miss Webster for some time of the morning, so we had to go into Miss Lewiss class. My retention fails me on what happened next, but I do reminisce to Edmund playing a trick on Gerald Davis by tying his shoelaces together.I can recall intercommunicate Edmund Do you wish that Miss Webster will take us to see the flowers when play is over? Edmund responded I dont care, because Ive seen some already growing in my aunts garden.The rest of the morning is a blur, except for when I drew a robin. After that I jus t remember asking Miss Webster shall we be going to see the snowdrops this afternoon?Yes, she replied, if Miss Lewis will allow us, well go and see them this afternoon.I bring to mind eating my lunch quietly, while thinking in my query of a story about a wizard who could change himself into anything at all. It was a good story, but something always seemed to happen before I got to the end of it. Sometimes I began it at night in bed, only to fall asleep long before the really exciting part. directly my mother was talking to me.Was Miss Webster in school this morning? she asked me, Yes, but she came late. She didnt arrive until playtime.Poor girl, my mother said as she shook her head. I thought about this for a long time, and then recalled back to earlier that morning.I continued Shes got a bad hand, I said. She caught her finger in the cupboard door and her hand was bleeding. Shes got a bandage on it today, shell never be able to bend her finger again, and thats what Edmund Jenkins said. I remember her looking at me and shaking her head while saying Oh, you and Edmund Jenkins.As many of my memories, I only recall a few moments of me running back to school to see the snowdrops. However when I got back there was nobody about, except some girls skipping and giggling just privileged the school yard, as I made my way inside the building. Everybody was driveting very quietly inside the classroom.We were allowed to go in early because it was very cold. Normally we would have stayed outside however wet and cold it was, but today it seemed that they all wanted to sit quietly with Miss Webster, close to the cast- iron shove that had the figure of the tortoise on top.At two oclock Miss Webster marked her register and then began to tell us a story. It was a good story, about a dragon who guarded a hoard of treasure in his den underground, where the snowdrops slept all through the winter. But as time went on, I noticed Miss Webster continually turned around to look at t he big clock in the hall. I realised she could see it through the top half of the classroom door, which I distinctly remember having four panes of glass in it. Also her voice seemed to be hoarser than usual, at the time I assumed she had a cold, which was fine when she read the dragon bits, but not good for the knight nor the princess. Unexpectedly, she shut the book with a sharp and stood up she hadnt even finished the story. And till this day I always wonder how the story ended, but I could never remember the title.She then announced, Now well go to see the snowdrops she said. I want the girls to go quietly to the cloakroom and put on their coats. When they are ready, Ill come along with the boys, everybody must wear a coat. If you have difficulty with buttons, please stand in front and Ill fasten them for you.I stood up with a sudden lightning of heart. I had known all the time that Miss Webster would not forget, and at last she was taking me to see the miraculous flowers, pale a nd fragile as the falling snow. I looked at Miss Webster with consummate(a) gratitude. I remember her eyes being as bright as frost, and she was making sure the girls walked nicely through the door. Just as we were about to leave, Edmund Jenkins waved at me and that was funny, because Edmund had his black gloves on with a hole in a place he could push his finger through. Edmund waved his finger like a fat white worm in the middle of his dark hand.We all walked through the playground, in two rows holding hands, and I hold Edmunds hand as we gave a little ship together every three steps. It didnt take long to get to the garden. We all bent down, four at a time, to look at the little clump of snowdrops as Miss Webster told us what to look at. I and Edmund would be last to look. When the other children had finished, the other children went down to the garden gate which opened onto the road. I remember it being a big gate, with iron bars and your head could almost poke through. Somewher e a long way off I could hear men tattle. They sang softly, mournfully, the words carried gently on the air over the school wall, but I could not hear what they were singing.Its a funeral, Edmund advised me. My fathers there and my uncle Jim. Its a boy who was killed on a motorbike. I nodded. Funerals often passed the school on their way to the cemetery at the top of the valley. All the men wore black suits and they walked slowly. Sometimes they sang.I squatted down to look at the snowdrops. I felt a slow, sad disappointment. I looked around for Miss Webster to explain these wide flowers to me, but she had gone down to the gate and was staring through, looking up the road. Her back was as hard as stone. I turned again to the snowdrops, concentrating, voluntary them to turn marvellous in front of my eyes. They hung down their four petalled heads in front of me, the white tinged with a minute green, the little green bullock block sturdily holding the petals, the greyish leaves sta nding up like miniature spears. I began to see their fragility.I saw them blow in a sudden gust of the cold March wind, shake, and straighten gallantly. I imagined them standing all night in the dark garden, holding bravely to their specks of whiteness. I put out a finger to touch the nearest flower, knowing now what snowdrops were. I lifted my face to tell Miss Webster, but she was standing right at the gate, holding the iron bars with her hands. I could see her shoulders shaking, at that time I didnt realise that Miss Webster wasnt shaking because of the cold, she was shaking because she was scared.*Mor ddedwydd yw y rhai trwy ffydd syn mynd o blith y byw*Sang the men as they filed solemnly past the school. I knew it was welsh because of my grandmother, and it was sad and beautiful, at the same time.After a while we couldnt hear the singing anymore, but Miss Webster continued to cry aloud in the midst of the cold March wind. As in her own personal way, she said pass to her sweeth eart.
Thursday, May 23, 2019
Innate ideas John Locke, a renowned English philosopher in the seventeenth century, argued against the pre-existing prevalent belief of infixed association, such as those led by Descartes. Many of Lockes arguments begin with criticisms on philosophers opinion on unconditional knowledge, notably Descartes. in that locationfore, many of Lockes arguments be direct rebuttals of Descartes and other philosophers beliefs about the existence of innate knowledge. To arrive at the conclusion that innate knowledge is impossible, Locke comes with unlike premises and rebuttals that add weight to his arguments.First, Locke emphasizes that knowledge and ideas ar learned through experience, not innately. He argues that peoples minds at birth are pinhead slate that is later filled through experience. Here, the senses play an important role because the knowledge of some truths, as Locke confesses, is very in the mind but in a way that shows them not to be innate. By this, Locke argues that some ideas are actually in the mind from an archaean age but these ideas are furnished by the senses starting in the womb. For example, the color moody and the blueness of something is not that which is learned innately but is some is learned through exposures to a blue object or thing. So if we do have a universal at a lower placestanding of blueness, it is because we are exposed to blue objects ever since we were young. The blue sky is what many would acquaint with blue easily and at a young age. Second, Locke argues that people have no innate principles. Locke contended that innate principles rely upon innate ideas within people but such innate ideas do not exist. He says this on the basis that there is no universal comply that everyone agrees upon.Locke quotes that There is nothing more commonly taken for granted that there are real principles universally agreed upon by all mankind, but there are none to which all mankind give a universal comply. This argues against the ve ry foundation of the idea of innate knowledge because principles that garner universal assent are thought to be known innately, simply because it is the best explanation available. However, it cannot even be an explanation for such belief because no universal hold exists. Rationalists argue that there are in fact ome principles that are universally agreed upon, such as the principle of identity operator. But it is far-fetched to claim that everyone knows this principle of identity because for the least, children and idiots, the less-intelligent ones are not acquainted with it. There are several objections to these premises and arguments that are outlined above. The argument by Locke that there are some ideas that are in the mind at an early age gives credence to argument for the innate ideas. For ideas to be furnished by the senses later on there has to be ideas that are laid as foundations.If such ideas are innate, as acknowledged by Locke, no matter how trivial or less significa nt these ideas whitethorn be as one may argue, such claim could give weight to the idea of innate knowledge. Innate knowledge or ideas, after all, doesnt imply that all ideas are innate because as one can see, there are things that we learn through our experiences and encounters in life as well. So as long as there is even the basic principle that is innate early in life, then innate knowledge can be known to exist. The validity behind the claim that there is no universal consent is also questionable.Locke argues that no principle that all mankind agrees upon exists because there are those who are not acquainted with such principle, notably children and idiots. However, the terms children and idiots are somewhat misguided. How are children and especially the idiots categorized? Is there a specific criteria employ for those who are classified as idiots? It is hard to generalize that idiots or those who are deemed less intelligent are not acquainted with certain principles because at times, intelligence service is not the best indicator of someones knowledge or ideas.There are many intelligent people out there who take their status for granted and do not think, contemplate or make an effort to their best extent. The objections that are made against the initial arguments can be defended in certain ways. Regarding the objection that since there are innate ideas in the mind at an early age, innate knowledge exists, the term innate should be thought of again in greater detail. Innate knowledge has to be significant enough for us to recount to be considered such. Thus, there comes a risk with considering the ideas within our minds early on as innate.For example, the knowledge of our hands and feet maybe imbedded to us at a very early stage. The knowledge of using our hands and feet are not so significant. The knowledge that we gain through our use of hands and feet could be vital knowledge that we may recount throughout. Throwing a baseball properly under a coachs instructions is an example. Also, there is the claim that intelligence cannot be the sole indicator of ones acquisition of universal consent and that there isnt a clear distinction of those who can understand universal principles to those who cannot.However, the important focus here should not be on delimit idiots and intelligence but on that universal consent is hard to be assembled by every single mankind. Therefore, more should be considered than just innate knowledge that could garner universal consent. Empirical principles that are derived from experience could garner universal assent too. For example, the fear of dying or getting seriously injured could humble that people would not jump out the roof from tall buildings. And this belief could be universal among all.
Wednesday, May 22, 2019
The Iraq struggle is also known as the Occupation of Iraq and it started on 20th March 2003, the state of war was spearheaded by the coupled States of America which was also backed by the U. K. There were other countries that had sm some(prenominal) gouges in the usurpation but they did not have many promenade as comp bed to the US and the Britain, these countries included Australia, Poland, Denmark and Spain. This invasion marked the beginning of the current Iraq war.The study reason for the invasion was to obliterate the Saddam regime which was believed to be sustenance terrorist activities, it was also aimed at disarming Iraq which was said to be in possession of weapons of mass destruction and the last reason for the invasion was to free the people of Iraq from the totalitarianism of Saddam (Allen, Mike and Juliet, 2002). The trigger of the war is said to have been the failure of Iraq to disarm itself of the biological, chemical and nuclear weapons that the US and it s affiliate said were a affright to the world peace.Some of the traditional allies of the unify States opposed the war and turn overd that at that place was no evidence of weapons of mass destruction in Iraq some of these countries were Germany, France and Canada. The invasion started with an air strike at the prexyial palace which was later followed by attacks on the s awayhern side of Iraq. The coalition forces operated from a point near the Kuwait-Iraq border. The Iraq war is said to have caused very many protests all over the world with the largest protest in Rome where more than three million people protested against the war.The United States-Turkish traffichip was greatly moved(p) by what preceded the aftermath of the war on Iraq. For the last Fifty years there has been a very good Turkish-American confederacy which can be seen in the efforts that the two countries have made in Korea, Kosovo and Bosnia. In the year 1999 when President Clinton visited Turkey after an e arthquake he exposit their apprisalship as a very strategic partnership and there was a traffic circle of support fir the partnership mingled with the two nations.The unbendable partnership began to deteriorate in March 2003 when the US was almost attacking Iraq. The effect of this was entangle when the Turkish parliament rejected the request by the US to allow the US troops to go through Turkey just before the war started. Most people in Turkey were against the war with 95% of the whole population being against the war and this forced the judicature to reject the US request although it was seen as a loss to the Turkish government as it lost a jalopy of grants and loans that would have come with the agreement.Although the Turkey government wants to renew the parityship with the United States there is a feeling that the instability that was caused by the war on the Turkish border with the Northern Iraq has caused a lot of damage to the Turkish tourism industry. The Iraq war caused the relationship that existed between the US and the Turkish government to be highly affected.The US sees Turkey as a very important domain because it is a country with a makority of Muslims but it has exercised a successful democracy, Turkey is also a link between the Central Asia and the Europe in matters relating to energy and Turkey has also played a major part as a broker in the Middle East. The effort of the US government to encourage the Turkish government to form good relations with the Iraqis was greatly affected after the war due to the instability that exists in the Northern Iraq region.The Iraq war also led to an alarming increase in the anti-American slogans among the Turks because of the instability in Turkey that was as a result of the Iraq war. The Iraq war resulted in a lot of strain between the Turkish government and the US but this can be put on hold by the US allowing Turkey to perform a Major role in the reconstruction of Iraq. The other ara that was greatly affected by the war is the education sector in Turkey, students from Turkey no longer wants to socialize with the Americans and the Europeans after the war (Council on foreign relations, 2003).The other major effect of the war in Iraq is that it created fear in the Arab countries and most of these countries no longer trust the US or the UK. Most of the Arab countries matt-up that Iraq was only the first country in what they referred to as the domino effect of democracy and they believe that with the successful introduction of democracy in Iraq there will be more attacks in the Middle East with the aim of installing democracy. This has caused the Arab countries to live in fear of attacks from the US and the UK and hence they end up arming themselves and at the same term carrying out jihads.The war has also created very high sensitivity in Iran about the regional fight of the U. S in the country and they believe that those people in the Islamic republic are surrounded by a number of countries which are allies to the U. S and this has caused a lot of fear to the people in the Arab countries. The other major effect that the war has had is that it has led to the collapse of the strong relationship that existed between the United States and the U. K and Syria.This has been attributed to the fact that it is feared that Iraq transferred its weapons of mass destruction to Syria when it was about to be attacked by the coalition forces, this has resulted to a lot of tension in Syria for the fear that the country may be attacked by the coalition forces in search of the weapons of mass destruction. The other major effect of the war on Iraq has been in Saudi Arabia, there have been fears of a military attack against Saudi Arabia and also the increased pressure from the United States of America on Saudi Arabia to collaborate in the war against terrorist act.The Saudi-U. S relations have been less than ideal in the current days and this made the Saudis think that the Bush administration was using its military force in Iraq so as to influence something from the Saudis. There has been a great deal of uncertainty in the Arab countries with the people thinking that because of the success of the military fulfill on Iraq the United States and its allies may use the same on most of the Arab countries.The other major effect of the war was that there were increased cases of terrorism activities in the U.S and the U. K when the war against Iraq was declared, this was because the Arab countries were opposed to the war and because they could not convince the U. S and the U. K not to attack Iraq they opted for terrorist activities. The attack against Iraq was also aimed at bringing out the link between the 9/11 bombing in U. S and the Saddam regime but this was not evident and therefore most of the Iraqis felt that the attack was simply to impose a government that was created by the United States and its allies.Baghdad and Damascus are towns in Iraq tha t are make full with terrorists of the old days but there was no evidence to link these people to the 9/11 bombing in U. S. and this clearly indicated that those who lost their lives in Iraq during the war were not the terrorists responsible for the 9/11 attacks (Leslie, 2004). Muslims all over the world had at first opposed the attack by Al base of operations on U. S, but this was then reversed when the U. S attacked Iraq and triggered more chaos from the Arab communities.As a result of the war on Iraq moderate Muslims began to support anyone who is out to defend the Muslim land and the values of the Islam religion against any group of people aimed at crashing the Muslims. Due to this the relationship that was there especially in Iraq and paradise between the U. S and the U. K and the Muslims was greatly affected as the Muslims thought that the U. S and the U. K were out to bring to an end their religion. The war in Iraq has resulted in more bitterness and instability in Iraq as more young Muslims are coming up with a form of jihad that is more volatile than it used to be in the past.The American policy makers have very little appreciation on how their military actions in Iraq, Lebanon and Afghanistan is causing a lot of radicals in the Muslims opinions and also creating very many radical groups that are aimed at rubbish for the sake of their faith. This has caused a very poor perception of the citizens of the Arab countries in that they are seen as terrorists just because of being an Arab. The relationship between students from Arab countries and those from the United States or the U. K has also been affected by this perception (Fawaz, 2006).The civil unrest that was experienced in Iraq had very major effects on the relation of the U. S and U. K and the neighbouring countries of Iraq. The problems that the neighbours of Iraq are facing will continue even with a settle down improvement of the situation in Iraq and the situation would be worse if the sit uation in Iraq deteriorates. The most dangerous effect of the Iraq war would be due to sectary and ethnic conflicts in Iraq. The sectarian hatred that may arise in Iraq will lead to civil unrest in Iraq and this would also affect the countries that are neighbouring Iraq.These countries would then in turn blame the U. S and its allies because they caused the war in Iraq. The Iraq people and its allies felt that they would not be welcomed in the United States in case they face any disasters in their countries and this also broke the relationship that was there between the Arab countries and the United States. This can be seen during the war because those Iraqis that were affected by the war were put in refugee camps and treated in a very inhuman way.The other major effect of the war on the relation of the Arab and the U. S and U. K was that there were reduced tourism activities between these nations for the fear of terrorism (Andrew, 2008). The war against Iraq also had an effect on the global terrorism and reversal to what George Bush and Tony Blair argued it is evident that the war brought about increased global terrorism. This is evident in that the number of people killed in jihad attacks has increased steadily from the while when the Iraq war started.The Iraq war is also seen to have caused an increase in the spread of the Al Qaeda activities in the Arab countries with the reason that they are out to fight for the Muslims all over the world. The increase in the Al Qaeda activities has caused a lot of insecurity in most of the Arab countries and this is attributed to the war against Iraq and therefore the Arabs find the U. S and the U. K as countries that are out to cause more problems in their countries (Kim and Patrick, 2007).When asked for the reasons for the U.S attack against Iraq most of the citizens of the Arab nations like Egypt, United Arab Emirates and Jordan give three most ordinary answers. Of these most of the Arabs think that the United Stat es was out to acquire oil reserves in Iraq and protect Israel, but the most astonishing answer given by citizens in the Arab nations is that they were out to weaken the Muslim community. This has led to break down of the relationship that existed between the Arab nations and the U. S and U. K. as the Arabs see the U. S and the U.K as people who are out to weaken them.The broad perception of the U. S military attack against the Muslim world is that there has been a collapse in the confidence that the Arab nations had on the United States and the U. K. Before the failure of the U. S backed peace talks between Israel and Palestine in 2000 that were mediated by President Clinton, around 60% of the people interviewed in Saudi said that they had confidence in the United States but this ceased with the attack by United States against Iraq in 2003. leave out of trust in the U. S and the U.K meant that there would be no negotiations that were headed by the two countries in the Arab countries because without trust negotiation does not make any sense at all. The other factor that led to the failure of the relation between the Arab nations and the United States is because of the insistence of the Bush administration on democracy in the Arab nations. They argued that instilling democracy in the Arab nations would greatly increase security in the world, but this was not the case because after the formation of a democratic government in Iraq there have been increased attacks in Iraq by jihads (Kevin, 2005).The war against Iraq also brought about some economic and emotional effects in the Arab nations. The Arab nations felt that they had the responsibility of supporting their fellow Muslims who were suffering in Iraq and therefore they dedicated a lot of resources to the Iraqis, was it not for the war that had been sparked by the United States and the U. K the Arab nations argue that they would have used these resources for their own developments.The Arabs also feel that they were weakened by the war on Iraq in that America took control of the oil wells in Iraq indicating that the Americans were not aimed at imposing a democratic system of government in Iraq but they were out to capture the oil wells in Iraq (Bruno, 2007). In the past five years four and a half million people have left Iraq as refugees, this has therefore put a lot of pressure on the neighbouring countries in that they have to care for the refugees.The neighbouring countries to Iraq have therefore broken the strong relationship that they had with the United States and the U.K because they term them as the major cause of the problem they are currently facing. Security in the countries around Iraq has also deteriorated due to the fact that terrorists are heading to the neighbouring countries from where they launch their attacks claiming to be fighting for the Muslim religion. The Arab nations feel that the war against Iraq has led to congestion in the Iraq hospitals due to the many casual ties that have to be treated in the hospitals and at the same time the hospitals lack qualified personnel and equipments to treat all the casualties. This has made the United States and the U.K be seen as very inhuman hence collapse of the relation between them and the Arab nations (Robert, 2005).The other major decline in the relations between Arabs and U. S and U. K can be seen in the area of trade. After the war on Iraq was declared the Arab nations reduced their trade with the two major countries that spearheaded the war. This caused a rise in the price of oil which is the major product of the Arab nations. The Arabs also felt that the war on Iraq caused an increase in the Cross border terrorism due to the large number of refugees who flew the war torn Iraq.These acts of terrorism that the neighbouring countries suffered from made them neglect the trust they had on the Americans and the people of U. K. There was also the issue of trans-national crime that came with the refugees from Iraq. Tourism activities were also greatly affected in the Arab countries because people from the U. S and the U. K feared travelling to Arab countries because of the increased acts of terrorism that had hit the whole world.The Arabs also developed a very bad perception for the Americans and the people of U.K they viewed these people as oppressors of the Muslim community. This had a great effect in those U. S and U. K citizens that were living in Arab countries with some of them having to be forced to go back to their stand countries due to fear of being attacked by jihads. The U. S and U. K relation with the Arab countries declined due to the war and this forced some of the U. S or U. K organizations that were ground in the Arab countries to return back to their home countries. This shows that business ties between the Arabs and the U. S and U. K were declining.
Tuesday, May 21, 2019
Education, as we know it today, did not exist in the Middle Ages. Illiteracy was dominant among the nation. Scribes were the exception to the encounter. church buildinges were the main source of knowledge and grooming. Real disport in learning grew along with the development of towns. The towns officials needed to be educated. At the same time a need for legal institutions was created and so started the university phenomenon. Modern teaching method was on its way. Thither were few schools in the Middle ages, so everyone had limited education. even so the Lord of the Manor was often unable to read or write. some(a) of the eldest schools were Cathedral schools. As well as Parish, Monastic, and Palace schools. Here people learned a particular role in society. Naturally the primeval job was training the clergy in their professional duties as priests of the Christian people. The bishop was the head of the complex and he had a staff of priest to help him with the several of the dio cese. These skills that were taught here were reading, singing of hymns, church law, writing of documents and the performing of Church duties and sacraments.An example of educating for a specific role in life were the Knights who had learn how to fight with assorted weapons so that they could fight for their king. The common people, however, had no way of being educated other than going a monastic school. However, if they did this, they had to donate their property to the church. The people who went to this school after become monks or nuns. They had to follow three important laws chastity, obedience, and the law or the lord if not followed they would be thrown out of the monastery.Most monasteries had a rule of silence monks could not talk which other except for a short period of time. During meals one monk dexterity read passages from the bible while the others mediated. Even though monks lives seem to be so hard it was the best place to go for a good education for anybody from a king to a resist (Monasteries 488-499). Women took part in monastic life by living in a convent under a direction of an abbess. Known as nuns, they wore simple raiment and wrapped a white cloth called a wimple around their face and neck.They alternated prayer with spinning, weaving, and embroiling items such as tapestries and banners. They also taught needlework and the medicinal use of herbs to daughters of nobles (Couglin A6). Although monks and nuns lived isolated from society, they were not completely isolated. Indeed, they played a crucial role in medieval intellectual and social life. Since few people could read or write, the fixity clergy preserved ancient and the classical writings. Scribes copied all the books by hand working in a small drafty room with one candle or a small window for light.Illuminated manuscripts decorated with rich colors and intricate pictures indicate that, although the task was through with hard work, it was also lovingly done (Monastaries 499-5 01). Monasteries and convents provided not only schools for teenaged people, just hospitals for the sick, food for the needy, and a home for travelers who need a place to stay (Monasteries 499-501). Cathedral schools were there to train higher-member of the Church in their professional duties as ministers of the Christian people. The bishop in whose Cathedral complex the school was located needed a group of trained priests to administer the various needs dioceses.The Cathedral school largely emphasized practical skills, effective reading, singing, and knowledge of Church Law, public speaking and the administration of the holy sacraments (Corbishely 28). At first the university was not so much a place as it was a group of scholars organized like a guild for the purpose of learning. Classes were held in rented dwell or churches even in the open air. Books were scarce. In most classes teacher read the text and discussed it, while students took notes on slates or memorized as much t uition as possible. Classes did, however meet regularly schedule.University rules established the obligations of the students and the teachers toward each other. To qualify as a teacher students had to pass an exam leading to a degree, or a certificate of completion (Cantor 58). By the end of the 1200s universities had spread throughout Europe. Most southern European universities were sculpted after the law school at Bologna, Italy, and specialized in law and medicine. Universities in Northern Europe on the contrary, specialized in liberal arts in Theology. These were generally modeled after the University of Paris (Bailey 89).At medieval universities, scholars studied Latin classics and Roman law in depth. They also acquired knowledge from the works of the Greek philosopher Aristotle and from the Islamic acquisition in the sciences. This interest in the physical world eventually led a rise of western science (Schools 291-292). Many church leadership inappropriate the study of A ristotles works, fearing that his ideas feared the Christian teachings. In contrast some scholars thought that new knowledge could be used ideas. The applied Aristotle philosophy to theological questions and true a system of thought called bookwormism.This new type of learning emphasized reason as well as the faith in the interpretations of Christian doctrine. bookworm sought to bring back classical philosophy along side with the teachings of the Church. They believed that knowledge could be integrated into a coherent whole (Schools 295). One scholastic teacher, Peter Aberlard taught theology in Paris during the early 1100s. In his book Sic et Non, he collected statements from the bible writings of early Christian leaders that showed both sides of controversial questions.Abearld then had his students reconcile the difference though logic. In the 1200s the most important scholastic thinker was Thomas Aquinas a brilliant theologian and philosopher who taught philosophy in Naples and France. In his work Summa Theolgica Aquinas claimed that reason was a gift from god that could provide answers to basic philosophical questions. The Catholic later accepted and promoted Aquinass way of teaching and thinking (Schools 310). The education of a horse proceeded in a way similar to that of many another(prenominal) medieval occupations.At an early age the prospective knight was apprenticed to serve as a page, or attendant, in a knights household. In his teens the page graduated to the status of a squire and received more(prenominal) than responsibilities. As a squire the boy tended his knights horses and armor, but he also gained his first battle experience. Several squires were usually apprenticed to a knight at the same time and on the battlefield they might fight as a small band of infantry around their master. Here they acquired the many skills in arms necessary for their profession.To graduate to the status of a knight, a squire usually performed some heroic deed i n battle. The squire was welcomed into the order of knights by being dubbed with a sword or slapped in the face by his lord. Afterwards the new knight would receive his fief, or gift of land. As the cult of chivalry developed in the 12th and thirteenth centuries, knighting ceremonies became more involved. Often they occurred at court, and a knights dubbing might be preceded by a religious vigil in which the knight vowed to uphold Christian and chivalric principles (Davies 12-13).Finally the Renaissance, or rebirth of learning, began in Europe in the 14th century and reached its height in the 15th century. Scholars became more interested in the humanist features that is, the secular or worldly rather than the religious aspects of the Greek and Latin classics. Humanist educators found their models of literary style in the classics. The Renaissance was a particularly powerful force in Italy, most notably in art, literature, and architecture. In literature, the works of such Italian wri ters as Dante Aleghieri, Petrarch, and Giovanni Boccaccio became peculiarly important (Renaissance 228-229).Humanist educators designed teaching methods to prepare well-rounded, liberally educated persons. Dutch humanist Desiderius Erasmus was particularly influential. Erasmus believed that understanding and conversing about the meaning of literature was more important than memorizing it, as had been required at many of the medieval religious schools. He advised teachers to study such fields as archeology, astronomy, mythology, history, and Scripture (Renaissance 220). The machination of the printing press in the mid-15th century made books more widely available and increased literacy rates.But school attendance did not increase greatly during the Renaissance. Elementary schools educated middle-class children while lower-class children received little, if any, formal schooling. Children of the nobility and upper classes attended humanist secondary schools (Bailey 112). Educational opportunities for women improved just about during the Renaissance, especially for the upper classes. Some girls from wealthy families attended schools of the royal court or received private lessons at home.The curriculum studied by young women was still based on the belief that only certain subjects, such as art, music, needlework, dancing, and poetry, were suited for females. For working-class girls, especially rural peasants, education was still limited to training in household duties such as cooking and sewing (Couglin, A8). As it shows education the Middle Ages seems to be so diverse and a start point for modern education. But the reader must always keep in mind only about five percent of the whole population did all of these educational activities.
Monday, May 20, 2019
3Yet, even so, Hari Seldon could non repress the surge of satisfaction that he felt as he entered his laboratory.How things had changed.It had begun twenty grand judgment of conviction earlier with his receive doodlings on his second-rate Heliconian computer. It was accordingly(prenominal) that the first base hint of what was to be light parachaotic math came to him in a cloudy fashion.Then there were the days at Streeling University, when he and Yugo Amaryl, meshing unneurotic, attempted to renormalize the equations, get rid of the inconvenient infinities, and find a focussing around the worst of the chaotic effects. They make very weeny progress, indeed.But now, after hug drug years as First minister of religion, he had a self-coloured floor of the latest computers and a whole staff of the great unwashed working on a large variety of problems.Of necessity, n unmatched of his staff-except for Yugo and himself, of traverse-could re completely(prenominal)y fill in o fttimes to a greater extent than than the immediate problem they were dealing with. Each of them worked with single a sm whole ravine or revealcropping on the gigantic sight range of psychohistory that scarcely Seldon and Amaryl could reassure as a mountain range-and even they could see it only dimly, its peaks hidden in clouds, its slopes veiled by mist.Dors Venabili was right, of course. He would work to pose initiating his people into the entire mystery. The technique was getting sound beyond what only two men could handle. And Seldon was aging. rase if he could cheek forward to few additional decades, the years of his most fruitful break by means ofs were surely merchant human creation him.Even Amaryl would be thirty-nine within a month and, though that was salvage young, it was perhaps non oerly young for a mathematician-and he had been working on the problem almost as retentive as Seldon himself. His capacity for rude(a) and tangential thought might be dwind ling, to a fault.Amaryl had seen him enter and was now approaching. Seldon watched him fondly. Amaryl was as much a Dahlite as Seldons foster son, Raych, was, and yet Amaryl, despite his muscular physique and short stature, did not front Dahlite at all. He lacked the m sr.inessache, he lacked the accent, he lacked, it would seem, Dahlite consciousness of either(prenominal) lovable. He had even been corrosion-resistant to the lure of Jo-Jo Joranum, who had appealed so thoroughly to the people of Dahl.It was as though Amaryl recognized no sectoral patriotism, no peregrine patriotism, not even Imperial patriotism. He belonged-completely and only-to psychohistory.Seldon felt a twinge of insufficiency. He himself remained conscious of his first two decades on Helicon and there was no way he could harbor from seeing of himself as a Heliconian. He wondered if that consciousness was not sure to betray him by causing him to skew his cyphering about psychohistory. Ideally, to char acter psychohistory properly, one should be above worlds and sectors and deal only with humanity in the representless abstract-and this was what Amaryl did.And Seldon didnt, he admitted to himself, sighing silently.Amaryl tell, We argon making progress, Hari, I suppose.You suppose, Yugo? Merely suppose?I dont want to head start into outer(prenominal) space without a suit. He said this kinda seriously (he did not entertain much of a sense of humor, Seldon knew) and they moved into their private office. It was small, still it was also well shielded.Amaryl sat down and crossed his legs. He said, Your latest scheme for getting around chaos whitethorn be working in lift off-at the apostrophize of sharpness, of course.Of course. What we gain in the straightaway, we lose in the roundabouts. Thats the way the Universe flora. Weve just got to fool it somehow.Weve fooled it a little bit. Its like looking through frosted glass.Better than the years we spent trying to look through lea d.Amaryl muttered something to himself, then said, We eject catch glimmers of light and dark.ExplainI cant, precisely I retain the bloom Radiant, which Ive been working on like a-a-Try lamec. Thats an animal-a beast of burden-we pretend on Helicon. It doesnt exist on Trantor.If the lamec works hard, then that is what my work on the Prime Radiant has been like.He pressed the security keypad on his desk and a drawer unsealed and slid open noiselessly. He took out a dark opaque stoppage that Seldon scrutinized with interest. Seldon himself had worked out the Prime Radiants circuitry, only if Amaryl had put it together-a clever man with his hands was Amaryl.The room darkened and equations and relationships shimmered in the air. Numbers spread out beneath them, hovering just above the desk surface, as if suspended by unseeyn marionette strings.Seldon said, Wonderful. Someday, if we remain long plentiful, well have the Prime Radiant produce a river of mathematical symbolisation ic representation that allow chart past and future history. In it we can find currents and rivulets and work out shipway of changing them in order to make them follow otherwise currents and rivulets that we would prefer.Yes, said Amaryl dryly, if we can manage to live with the lie withledge that the actions we takings, which we go out mean for the best, may turn out to be for the worst.Believe me, Yugo, I never go to bed at night without that crabbed thought gnawing at me. Still, we havent come to it yet. All we have is this-which, as you say, is no more than seeing light and dark fuzzily through frosted glass.True enough.And what is it you guess you see, Yugo? Seldon watched Amaryl closely, a little grimly. He was gaining weight, getting just a bit pudgy. He spent too much time bent over the computers (and now over the Prime Radiant)-and not enough in physical activity. And, though he saw a woman now and then, Seldon knew, he had never married. A mistake Even a workaholic i s ferocityd to take time off to satisfy a mate, to take c are of the essentials of children.Seldon thought of his own still-trim figure and of the manner in which Dors strove to make him keep it that way.Amaryl said, What do I see? The Empire is in trouble.The Empire is always in trouble.Yes, further its more specific. Theres a possibleness that we may have trouble at the center.At Trantor?I presume. Or at the Periphery. either there depart be a bad situation here-perhaps civil war-or the outlying Outer Worlds go away begin to break away.Surely it doesnt take psychohistory to point out these possibilities.The interesting thing is that there seems a mutual exclusivity. One or the other. The likelihood of both together is very small. Here Look Its your own mathematics. ObserveThey bent over the Prime Radiant display for a long time.Seldon said finally, I fail to see why the two should be mutually exclusive.So do I, Hari, but wheres the apprise of psychohistory if it figures us only what we would see anyway? This is showing us something we wouldnt see. What it doesnt show us is, first, which alternative is better, and second, what to do to make the better come to pass and depress the possibility of the worse.Seldon pursed his lips, then said slowly, I can disunite you which alternative is preferable. Let the Periphery go and keep Trantor.Really?No question. We moldiness keep Trantor electrostatic, if for no other reason than that were here.Surely our own comfort isnt the decisive point.No, but psychohistory is. What good depart it do us to keep the Periphery intact if conditions on Trantor force us to stop work on psychohistory? I dont say that well be killed, but we may be unable to work. The development of psychohistory is on what our fate will depend. As for the Empire, if the Periphery secedes it will only begin a disintegration that may take a long time to reach the core.Even if youre right, Hari, what do we do to keep Trantor stable?To begin wi th, we have to speak out about it.A silence fell between them and then Seldon said, cerebration doesnt make me happy. What if the Empire is altogether on the unlawful track and has been for all its history? I think of that every time I talk to Gruber.Whos Gruber?Mandell Gruber. A gardener.Oh. The one who came running up with the lurch to give up you at the time of the assassination attempt?Yes. Ive always been grateful to him for that. He had only a rake against possibly other conspirators with blasters. Thats loyalty. Anyhow, lecture to him is like a breath of fresh air. I cant spend all my time talking to court officials and to psychohistorians.Thank you.Come You notice what I mean. Gruber likes the open. He wants the wind and the rainwater and the biting c old(a) and everything else that raw weather can bring to him. I miss it myself sometimes.I dont. I wouldnt care if I never go out there.You were brought up under the dome-but suppose the Empire consisted of naive unind ustrialized worlds, living by herding and farming, with thin populations and empty spaces. Wouldnt we all be better off?It sounds atrocious to me.I found some spare time to check it as best I could. It seems to me its a case of unstable equilibrium. A thinly populated world of the type I describe either grows moribund and impoverished, falling off into an uncultured most-animal level-or it industrializes. It is standing on a narrow point and topples over in either direction and, as it just so happens, almost every world in the Galaxy has fallen over into industrialization.Because thats better.Maybe. But it cant continue forever. Were watching the results of the overtoppling now. The Empire cannot exist for much semipermanent because it has-it has overheated. I cant think of any other expression. What will follow we dont live on. If, through psychohistory, we manage to prevent the coin or, more likely, force a recovery after the deliver, is that merely to ensure another period of overheat? Is that the only future humanity has, to push the boulder, like Sisyphus, up to the top of a hill, only to see it roll to the bottom again?Whos Sisyphus?A character in a primitive myth. Yugo, you must do more reading.Amaryl shrugged. So I can learn about Sisyphus? Not important. Perhaps psychohistory will show us a path to an entirely new society, one altogether different from anything we have seen, one that would be stable and desirable.I hope so, sighed Seldon. I hope so, but theres no sign of it yet. For the near future, we will just have to labor to let the Periphery go. That will mark the beginning of the Fall of the astronomical Empire.4And so I said, said Hari Seldon. That will mark the beginning of the Fall of the Galactic Empire. And so it will, Dors.Dors listened, tight-lipped. She accepted Seldons First Ministership as she accepted everything-calmly. Her only mission was to protect him and his psychohistory, but that task, she well knew, was made harder by h is position. The best security was to go unnoticed and, as long as the Spaceship-and-Sun, the symbol of the Empire, shone down upon Seldon, all of the physical barriers in existence would be unsatisfactory.The luxury in which they now lived-the attentive shielding from spy beams, as well as from physical interference the advantages to her own historical enquiry of being able to make use of nearly unlimited funds-did not satisfy her. She would gladly have exchanged it all for their old quarters at Streeling University. Or, better yet, for a nameless apart(predicate)ment in a nameless sector where no one knew them.Thats all very well, Hari dear, she said, but its not enough.Whats not enough?The information youre giving me. You say we might lose the Periphery. How? why?Seldon smiled briefly. How nice it would be to know, Dors, but psychohistory is not yet at the stage where it could tell us.In your opinion, then. Is it the competition of local faraway governors to maintain themselv es independent?Thats a factor, certainly. Its happened in past history-as you know far better than I-but never for long. Maybe this time it will be permanent.Because the Empire is weaker?Yes, because trade flows less freely than it at one time did, because communications are stiffer than they once were, because the governors in the Periphery are, in actual fact, closer to independence than they have ever been. If one of them arises with detail ambitions-Can you tell which one it might be?Not in the least. All we can force out of psychohistory at this stage is the definite knowledge that if a governor of unusual ability and ambition arises, he would find conditions more suitable for his purposes than he would have in the past. It could be other things, too-some nifty natural disaster or some sudden civil war between two nonadjacent Outer World coalitions. None of that can be precisely predicted as of now, but we can tell that anything of the sort that happens will have more serio us consequences than it would have had a century ago.But if you dont know a little more precisely what will happen in the Periphery, how can you so point actions as to make sure the Periphery goes, rather than Trantor?By keeping a close philia on both and trying to stabilize Trantor and not trying to stabilize the Periphery. We cant expect psychohistory to order events automatically without much greater knowledge of its workings, so we have to make use of constant manual controls, so to speak. In days to come, the technique will be refined and the need for manual control will decrease.But that, said Dors, is in days to come. Right?Right. And even that is only a hope.And just what kind of instabilities threaten Trantor-if we hang on to the Periphery?The same possibilities-economic and social factors, natural disasters, ambitious rivalries among high officials. And something more. I have described the Empire to Yugo as being overheated-and Trantor is the most overheated portion of all. It seems to be rupture down. The al-Qaida-water supply, heating, waste disposal, fuel lines, everything-seems to be having unusual problems and thats something Ive been turning my attention to more and more lately.What about the last of the Emperor?Seldon spread his hands. That happens inevitably, but Cleon is in good health. Hes only my age, which I wish was younger, but he isnt too old. His son is totally inadequate for the succession, but there will be enough claimants. to a greater extent than enough to cause trouble and make his death distressing, but it might not prove a total catastrophe-in the historic sense.Lets say his assassination, then.Seldon looked up nervously. Dont say that. Even if were shielded, dont use the word.Hari, dont be foolish. Its an eventuality that must be reckoned with. There was a time when the Joranumites might have taken advocator and, if they had, the Emperor, one way or another-Probably not. He would have been more useful as a figurehead. And in any case, forget it. Joranum died last year on Nishaya, a rather pathetic figure.He had followers.Of course. Everyone has followers. Did you ever come across the Globalist party on my native world of Helicon in your studies of the early history of the state of Trantor and of the Galactic Empire?No, I havent. I dont want to hurt your feelings, Hari, but I dont recall advance across any piece of history in which Helicon played a role.Im not hurt, Dors. contented the world without a history, I always say. In any case, about twenty-four hundred years ago, there arose a group of people on Helicon who were quite convinced that Helicon was the only inhabited globe in the Universe. Helicon was the Universe and beyond it there was only a substantive sphere of sky speckled with tiny stars.How could they believe that? said Dors. They were part of the Empire, I presume.Yes, but Globalists insisted that all evidence to the effect that the Empire existed was either illusion or delibera te deceit, that Imperial emissaries and officials were Heliconians playing a part for some reason. They were absolutely immune to reason.And what happened?I suppose its always pleasant to think that your particular world is the world. At their peak, the Globalists may have persuaded 10 percent of the population of the planet to be part of the front line. Only 10 percent, but they were a vehement minority that drowned out the indifferent majority and exist to take over.But they didnt, did they?No, they didnt. What happened was that Globalism caused a diminishing of Imperial trade and the Heliconian economy slid into the doldrums. When the belief began to affect the pocketbooks of the population, it lost(p) popularity rapidly. The rise and fall puzzled many at the time, but psychohistory, Im sure, would have shown it to be inevitable and would have made it unnecessary to give it any thought.I see. But, Hari, what is the point of this story? I presume theres some connection with wha t we were discussing.The connection is that such movements never completely die, no matter how ridiculous their tenets may seem to sane people. Right now, on Helicon, right now there are still Globalists. Not many, but every once in a while seventy or eighty of them get together in what they call a Global Congress and take enormous pleasure in talking to each other about Globalism. Well, it is only ten years since the Joranumite movement seemed such a enormous threat on this world and it would not be at all surprising if there werent still some remnants left. There may still be some remnants a thousand years from now.Isnt it potential that a remnant may be dangerous?I doubt it. It was Jo-Jos charisma that made the movement dangerous-and hes dead. He didnt even die a heroic death or one that was in any way remarkable he just withered away and died in exile, a broken man.Dors stood up and walked the length of the room quickly, swinging her arms at her sides and clenching her fists. S he returned and stood before the seated Seldon.Hari, she said, let me speak my mind. If psychohistory points to the possibility of serious disturbances on Trantor, then if there are Joranumites still left, they may still be plotting the Emperors death.Seldon laughed nervously. You jump at shadows, Dors. Relax.But he found that he could not dismiss what she had said quite that easily.5The Wye Sector had a tradition of oppositeness to the Entun Dynasty of Cleon I that had been ruling the Empire for over two centuries. The opposition dated certify to a time when the line of Mayors of Wye had contributed members who had served as Emperor. The Wyan Dynasty had neither lasted long nor had it been conspicuously successful, but the people and rulers of Wye found it difficult to forget that they had once been-however imperfectly and temporarily-supreme. The brief period when Rashelle, as the unauthorized Mayor of Wye, had challenged the Empire, eighteen years earlier, had added both to Wy es pride and to its frustration.All this made it reasonable that the small pile of leading conspirators should feel as safe in Wye as they would feel anywhere on Trantor. quintet of them sat around a table in a room in a infirm portion of the sector. The room was poorly furnished but well shielded.In a chair which, by its marginal superiority in quality to the others, sat the man who might well be judged to be the leader. He had a thin face, a sallow complexion, and a wide mouth with lips so blanch as to be nearly invisible. There was a touch of gray in his hair, but his look burned with an inextinguishable anger.He was staring at the man seated exactly opposite him-distinctly cured and softer, his hair almost white, his plump cheeks tending to quiver when he spoke.The leader said sharply, Well? It is quite apparent that you have done nothing. Explain thatThe older man said, I am an old Joranumite, Namarti. Why do I have to explain my actions?Gambol Deen Namarti, once the right -hand man of Laskin Jo-Jo Joranum, said, There are many old Joranumites. Some are incompetent, some are soft, some have forgotten. Being an old Joranumite may mean no more than that one is an old fool.The older man sat back in his chair. Are you calling me an old fool? Me? Kaspal Kaspalov? I was with Jo-Jo when you had not yet joined the party, when you were a ragged nothing in search of a cause.I am not calling you a fool, said Namarti sharply. I say merely that some old Joranumites are fools. You have a discover now to show me that you are not one of them.My association with Jo-Jo- will that. Hes deadI should think his spirit lives on.If that thought will help us in our fight, then his spirit lives on. But to others-not to us. We know he made mistakes.I deny that.Dont insist on making a hero out of a mere man who made mistakes. He thought he could move the Empire by the strength of oratory alone, by words-History shows that words have moved mountains in the past.Not Joranums wor ds, obviously, because he made mistakes. He hid his Mycogenian origins far too clumsily. Worse, he let himself be tricked into accusing First Minister Eto Demerzel of being a robot. I warned him against that accusation, but he wouldnt listen-and it destroyed him. Now lets start fresh, shall we? Whatever use we make of Joranums memory for outsiders, let us not ourselves be transfixed by it.Kaspalov sat silent. The other three transferred their gaze from Namarti to Kaspalov and back, content to let Namarti carry the weight of the raillery.With Joranums exile to Nishaya, the Joranumite movement fell apart and seemed to vanish, said Namarti harshly. It would, indeed, have vanished-but for me. Bit by bit and rubble by rubble, I rebuilt it into a electronic network that extends over all of Trantor. You know this, I take it.I know it, Chief, mumbled Kaspalov. The use of the title made it plain that Kaspalov was seeking reconciliation.Namarti smiled tightly. He did not insist on the title , but he always enjoyed sense of hearing it used. He said, Youre part of this network and you have your duties.Kaspalov stirred. He was clearly debating with himself internally and finally he said slowly, You tell me, Chief, that you warned Joranum against accusing the old First Minister of being a robot. You say he didnt listen, but at least you had your say. May I have the same privilege of pointing out what I think is a mistake and have you listen to me as Joranum listened to you, even if, like him, you dont take the advice given you?Of course you can speak your piece, Kaspalov. You are here in order that you might do so. What is your point?These new tactics of ours, Chief, are a mistake. They create disruption and do damage.Of course They are designed to do that. Namarti stirred in his seat, controlling his anger with an effort. Joranum tried persuasion. It didnt work. We will bring Trantor down by action.For how long? And at what cost?For as long as it takes-and at very little cost, actually. A power stoppage here, a water break there, a sewage backup, an air-conditioning halt. Inconvenience and discomfort-thats all it means.Kaspalov shook his head. These things are cumulative.Of course, Kaspalov, and we want public dismay and resentment to be cumulative, too. Listen, Kaspalov. The Empire is decaying. Everyone knows that. Everyone capable of intelligent thought knows that. The engine room will fail here and there, even if we do nothing. Were just helping it along a little.Its dangerous, Chief. Trantors infrastructure is incredibly complicated. A careless push may bring it down in ruins. Pull the wrong string and Trantor may topple like a house of cards.It hasnt so far.It may in the future. And what if the people find out that we are behind it? They would tear us apart. There would be no need to call in the security establishment or the armed forces. Mobs would destroy us.How would they ever learn enough to blame us? The natural target for the peoples re sentment will be the government-the Emperors advisers. They will never look beyond that.And how do we live with ourselves, knowing what we have done?This last was asked in a whisper, the old man clearly moved by strong emotion. Kaspalov looked pleadingly across the table at his leader, the man to whom he had sworn allegiance. He had done so in the belief that Namarti would truly continue to lose the standard of freedom passed on by Jo-Jo Joranum now Kaspalov wondered if this is how Jo-Jo would have wanted his dream to come to pass.Namarti clucked his tongue, much as a reproving parent does when confronting an errant child.Kaspalov, you cant seriously be turning sentimental on us, are you? Once we are in power, we will pick up the pieces and rebuild. We will gather in the people with all of Joranums old talk of popular participation in government, with greater representation, and when we are unwaveringly in power we will establish a more efficient and forceful government. We will th en have a better Trantor and a stronger Empire. We will set up some sort of discussion system whereby representatives of other worlds can talk themselves into a daze-but we will do the governing.Kaspalov sat there, irresolute.Namarti smiled joylessly. You are not certain? We cant lose. Its been working perfectly and it will continue working perfectly. The Emperor doesnt know whats going on. He hasnt the faintest notion. And his First Minister is a mathematician. He ruined Joranum, true, but since then he has done nothing.He has something called-called-Forget it. Joranum attached a great deal of importance to it, but it was a part of his being Mycogenian, like his robot mania. This mathematician has nothing-Historical psychoanalysis or something like that. I heard Joranum once say-Forget it. Just do your part. You handle the ventilation in the Anemoria Sector, dont you? Very well, then. Have it misfunction in a manner of your choosing. It either shuts down so that the humidity rises or it produces a peculiar odor or something else. None of this will kill anyone, so dont get yourself into a fever of virtuous guilt. You will simply make people uncomfortable and raise the general level of discomfort and annoyance. Can we depend on you?But what would only be discomfort and annoyance to the young and healthy may be more than that to infants, the aged, and the sickAre you going to insist that no one at all must be hurt?Kaspalov mumbled something.Namarti said, Its impossible to do anything with a guarantee that no one at all will be hurt. You just do your job. Do it in such a way that you hurt as few as possible-if your conscience insists upon it-but do itKaspalov said, Look I have one thing more to say, Chief.Then say it, said Namarti wearily.We can spend years poking at the infrastructure. The time must come when you take advantage of gathering dissatisfaction to seize the government. How do you intend to do that?You want to know exactly how well do it?Yes. The fast er we strike, the more limited the damage, the more efficiently the surgery is performed.Namarti said slowly, I have not yet decided on the nature of this surgical strike. But it will come. Until then, will you do your part?Kaspalov nodded his head in resignation. Yes, Chief.Well then, go, said Namarti with a sharp gesture of dismissal.Kaspalov rose, turned, and left. Namarti watched him go. He said to the man at his right, Kaspalov is not to be trusted. He has sold out and its only so that he can betray us that he wants to know my plans for the future. Take care of him.The other nodded and all three left, leaving Namarti alone in the room. He switched off the glowing wall panels, leaving only a lonely square in the ceiling to provide the light that would keep him from being entirely in the darkness.He thought Every chain has weak links that must be eliminated. We have had to do this in the past and the result is that we have an organization that is untouchable.And in the dimness, h e smiled, twisting his face into a kind of feral joy. After all, the network extended even into the Palace itself-not quite firmly, not quite reliably, but it was there. And it would be strengthened.
Sunday, May 19, 2019
Olin differentiates itself from competitors by focusing the merchant food market. Sales and growth This is a cyclical industry. This cyclical arises because cater is limited by the physical mental object of manufacturing facilities and ability to sell the co-product. Given these are commodity products, prices are very responsive to changes in supply and postulate. Timing aptitude growth with the cycle leads to a growth in gross sales. Demand for end-products ultimately drives demand for Color Alkali. The energy advantage North the States has by using infixed gas quite of crude oil has grown exports of end-products.Customers Most of sales are to the merchant market. The company is able to flummox a greater hare of the merchant chlorine market than its overall share of the market capacity because it focuses on the merchant market instead of using the products in downstream production. Costs and Suppliers Almost 50% of production be is raw materials. The two major needs are e lectricity and salt. Electricity comes from coal, hydroelectric, natural gas and nuclear power. Regulatory Olin must comply with legislation regarding the environment, such as air, water and overthrow quality, which requires capital expenditures and increases operation costs.The company has programs in place to minimize waste and prevent pollution. Legislation as passed in October 2009 surrounding the use of mercury cell technology, but expired without enactment. This would concord increased the costs of operating mercury cell capacity, of which Olin has one facility. Since it is uncertain whether something similar will happen in the future, Olin chose to alter its mercury cell capacity now, that lead to a restructuring charge incurred in 2010. Winchester Olin has held Winchester for 80 years. Winchester is the premier developer and manufacturing business of small caliber ammunition.Production is located in East Alton, IL, but new plans were announced in 2010 to move this operati on to Oxford, MS. This would be the most modern production facility in North America and reduce operating costs by $30 million. Competitive environment The ammunition industry creates mark consumer products. Factors contributing to product differentiation include performance, product innovation and taint recognition. Among competitors, Wellnesss NAS Eden addle to leverage I TTS Drain name, making it one of the three bigheartedst commercial ammunition manufactures in the United States, along with Lillian Tachometers and Remington Arms Company.Sales and growth Winchester has been able to drive sales by being a retail brand of choice and an industry innovator. Recently, the company has developed reduced-lead and non-lead products. Sales are seasonal with an increase in sales during the fall hunting season. Several five-year contracts provide stability in future sales going forward. Currently, Winchester does have a backlog of $178. 1 million which is down from the previous year. Cus tomers Customers include retailers, law enforcement agencies, and militaries.Winchester has developed blotto relationships with industrial customers, mass merchants, wholesalers and specialty sporting goods retailers. The company also holds several entrants with the U. S. Government, accounting for 5% of sales in 2010. Costs and Suppliers The raw materials needed include copper, ammunition cartridge case cups, and lead, purchased from vendors at the market price plus a conversion charge. Propellant, the other raw material needed, is purchased mostly from one large U. S. Supplier. Management and Ownership Management has a strong understanding of long-term value creation.Olin uses a discounted funds flow model to value the companys goodwill and reviews their assumptions annually and/or when assumptions are changed by circumstances. Olin sees several recompense methods that help align managements interest with shareholders. A table outlining compensation can be found on page 29 of th e appendix. Institutions account for 80% of the common stock while insiders hold less than 1%. Olin common stock, traded on New York Stock Exchange, has 80. 2 million shares outstanding with an estimated float of 79. 5 million.
Saturday, May 18, 2019
Mrs. propertys 3rd grade schoolroom is a comfortable and safe environment for all of her 16 students. She has a real no-hit approach to education. passim the short amount of time I spent at Pelican Elementary, I was introduced to sheer creativeness. During my observation time, I was able to grasp the materials she purposed, the schoolroom environment, and the outcome of the classrooms learning experience. hard cashs methods of command are primarily centered on instructor-student interaction. Her ability to serve a multitude of unique inevitably within the same class is no small feat.As it is an effective learning tool, the majority of the inform days are filled with laughter. Because I observed on a Friday, though, I only got to stunner test days. In the morning, her students begin with breakfast in the classroom. Mrs. hard currency has specials proper after this because she is in the unfledged Hall instruction. Specials consist of classes interchangeable art, gym, music, etc. She would then take them to lunch at 1030. When they returned to the classroom, they headed straight into A. R. cartridge holder where they would read a book on a certain level and then answer questions closely that book on the computer.The questionnaire was for the t all(prenominal)er to know the students dumb what they read. Each grade level is in a dissimilar colored hallway because their rotations are at different times in the day. The hallway that held her classroom was more toward the center of the school. The hallway to her left was the Blue hallway for second grade and the hallway to her right was Red for fourth grade. In the middle of all the hallways and the main focus of the school was the library. I care this mark up a lot because it showed how important books and reading was.This is where the school was able to show its miscellany because there were posters on the walls with different ethnic children promoting sharing and equality. On the backside o f the bookcases, there were anti-bullying posters and posters that encouraged mouth out and asking for help. This showed that the school helped students who were being bullied and who had problems at home. After all that was through, they started Language Arts. They took several quizzes where she would study the students put up privacy folders. Because I only witnessed test taking, I didnt get to actually appreciate Mrs.Cashs teaching method but I did get to see how she tempered each student individually. She walked around the classroom and gave them pointers on how to hold their pencil and gave each child the time they needed to finish. She made the entire class look at her as she read spelling voice communication aloud and then had them give her thumbs up when they finished writing them. The remarkable thing about Mrs. Cash is that she has a lot of patience and gives everyone the time they deserve. By doing this, it showed that she took the time to give everyone the time and m aterials they needed, regardless of racial background, to finish their work.She worked with everyones learning ability to help them succeed. When this subject was over, she took them outside to recess. I did not like this part of the day because it felt as though the days schedule was run by Mrs. Cash herself. She took them to recess when she thought it was necessary and then brought them back inside, after what felt like 10 minutes, because she was too hot. The schedule they had did not seem as though it was the schools plan, but the teachers and that each teacher had their own. There were a fewer children who lost their privilege due to misbehaving and had to present out while they finished late work.I thought this was a good method to use to teach students to turn in work on time. The academic lessons I watched with Mrs. Cash were focused on reading, writing, and spelling. The criteria seemed very enjoyable and sort of natural to teach. The students are quite comfortable and c hallenged in a anicteric way. When they completed a worksheet together, most of the class excelled in getting the right answers and Cash fed sour of everyones contribution. She never pushed down an answer, even if it was wrong, and made everyone sense like their contributions were appreciated.I admire this because it is very rough to achieve comfort of that level in a classroom for only a few short weeks. Being faced with adversity in the classroom is an everyday, perhaps every hour occurrence. Mrs. Cash engages her students adverse behavioral problems with ease. She agrees that You must choose your battles, and that, Not every action deserves a reaction. This concept, although not novel, is quite challenging for most. Luckily, she has had a lot of practice. I did notice, though, that she had the students who were grasping the material easier farther by from her desk than she had the ones who were struggling.I feel as though some of the students knew she did this and therefore did not want to try as hard. When facing salmagundi herself, though, Mrs. Cash did not treat everyone fairly. There was one boy in particular who she constantly picked on. He was of Latin descent and, Im sure, spoke a form of Spanish, but he understood and could speak English. I understand that in most cases of diversity the language barrier is the biggest struggle, but there is more than one way to accommodate a student who does not understand English.I am not sure if he was just having a bad day, but he was being difficult with fulfilling requests. Cash would say things such as, I know you understand English . . . or Youre not moving fast enough handing out those papers as she would snatch them from his hands and turn away as though he were wasting her time. In these circumstances, I understand that she may have been deport because it was a Friday, but I would have used different words and definitely a different tone of voice or even had an interpreter if I was struggling to co mmunicate with him.The materials used within the classroom were varying. Mrs. Cash labeled everything to keep the classroom neat and organized. This also stimulated the students mind because they were subconsciously reading the labels and constantly learning where the materials went. They had purple folders during A. R. Time that held their books and quiz scores in one place. They had cubbies that were charge by seat number and all their school supplies stayed in there during the day. The subject text books were in bins lined up at the front of the class where a Team Leader would retrieve them when needed.Mrs. Cashs tidiness lends greatly to the success of her students. Her classroom is absolutely wonderful. She had an assortment of posters and class work tacked on the walls and a variety of knick-knacks all throughout. She had nicely scented soap that she bought for the class in an amusing core on the sink, she had silly window stickers on the windows and she had a collection of funny pens and pencils on each table. The tables were set up in four groups of four individual desks and there were assigned Team Leaders and actual Monitors.Her classroom decoration was fluid and made it a better learning environment because the students were facing each other, and not toward the teacher. This gave them opportunities to work together and to improve their social skills. What I did not like about the classroom was that it was openly joined with the one next to them. It was hard for some students to test because the class next gate was being taught a lesson and therefore making a lot of noise. When Mrs. Cash asked the teacher to quiet her classroom down, she apologized but made no changes.This irritated me because it wasnt fair to the students. I assume the classrooms were designed this way to save water, because of fewer bathrooms, but it is not a very constructive learning environment. A wife, incur and distinguished grade school teacher, Mrs. Cash has been an id eal observation candidate. Her approach to education is a successful one. Taken away is an informed standpoint about teaching young students in general that assists greatly to the morale of a perspective teaching professional.